Skip to main content

Full text of "Geology and mineral resources of Western Southland"

See other formats

Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



^\ of ^Titles. 


(P. G. MORGAN, Director.) 

BULLETIN No. 23 (New Series). 





JAMES PARK, F.G.S., F.N.ZJnst., 
Dean op the Mining Faculty, Otago University, Dunedin. 






Geological Survey Office, 

Wellington, 30th June, 1921. 

Sir, — 

I have the honour to transmit herewith Bulletin No. 23 (New 

Series) of the Geological Survey Branch of the Mines Department. This 

bulletin is entitled " Geology and Mineral Resources of Western Southland," 

and was written by Professor James Park, F.G.S., F.N. Z.Inst., as the result 

of field-work during the summer of 1919-20. The survey was undertaken 

in accordance with an arrangement between the Mines Department, the 

University of Otago, and Professor Park, whereby the services of the latter 

were given gratuitously and field expenses were paid by the Mines 


The bulletin contains 88 pages of letterpress, together with eight plates, 
seven text-tigiires, and two maps. It gives special attention to the Nightcaps- 
Ohai coalfield and its probable extension into the Waiau Valley, as well as 
to the occurrence of brick and pottery clays, and of limestones and marls 
suitable for the manufacture of Portland cement. A suggestion is also made 
that petroleum and natural gas may exist in certain parts of Southland. 

I have the honour to be, 
Your obedient servant, 


Director, New Zealand Geological Survey. 
The Hon. G. J. Anderson, 

Minister of Mines, Wellington. 


Letter of Transmittal 


Chapter I. — -Gemeral Information. 

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . 1 

Scope of Work . . . . . . . . 1 

Climate and Rainfall . . . . . . . . 2 

Lakes . . . . . . . . . . 2 

Rivers . . . . . . . . . . 4 

Fauna . . . . . . . . . . 4 

Flora .. .. .. .. ..7 

The Salt-meadows and Salt-swamp Zone . . 9 

The Meadow Zone, from Soa-levol up to 1,000 ft. . . 9 

Flora — continned. 

River-bed Assemblage of Plants 

The Zone of Mixed Bush, from Sea-level up to 
1,200 ft. .. 

The Forest Zone, from 1,200 ft. up to 3,000 ft. . . 

The Subali)ino Zone, from ."J.OOO ft. up to 3,.5O0 ft. 

The Alpine Zone, from 3,500 ft. up to 6.000 ft. . . 



Chapter II. — Geological Structure and Physiography. 

General Geological Structure 
Topograjihical Features 
The Fiordland Peneplain 

Submergence of Peneplain and Formation of Coal- 
measures . . 




E.xtcnt of Post-Jurassic Peaejjlain 

.. 16 


Age of -Jurassic Peneplain . . 

.. 18 


The Waiau Fault 

.. 20 

Other Faults . . 

.. 20 



.. 21 

Chaptkr III. — Geological History. 

Major Diastrophic Movements and Mountain-building 
Periods .. .. .. .. .22 

Some Geographical Relationships of New Zealand . . 24 

Outline of Geological History 
The Story of the Rocks 
The Succession of Life 

Classification of Rock Formations 


Chapter IV.— Manatouri System. 

Historical and General . . 



Age .. 

Origin of Metamorphism 

Dusky Sound Series 
Character and Distribution 
Structure and Thickness 


Maniototo Series 

Character and Distribution 


General Petrology 

Foliation and Origin of Schists 
Preservation Inlet Series 

Distribution and Structure 



Chapter V. — Maitai System. 

Historical and General . . 

Character of Rocks and Distribution 





Age . . 

Igneous Intrusions 

Relationship of New Zealand to Gondwanaland 


Chapter VI. — Clinton River Intrusive Series. 

Greneral Character and Distribution 
Succession of Intru.sions 
Age of Intrusions 

ii— Geol. Bull. No. 23. 



McKinnon's Pass 
Sounds Area 



CnAi-TKR ^11. — Tertiary Geology. 

Miocene Oamaruian System 
Coii'litions of Deposition 

Cliaraeter of Beds, and Thickness 
Mussel Beach Section . . 
(lifden Sections 
Blackiuount Section . . 


Miocene Oamaruian System — continued. 

Economic Minerals . . . . . . . . 54 

Pleistocene Deposits . . . . . . . . 54 

Orepuki Clays, Silts, and Sandy Beds . . . . 54 

Mararoa Clays and Silts . . . . . . 55 

High-level, Glacial, and Fluvio-glacial Drifts and 

Moraines . . . . . . . . . . 55 

Recent Accumulations . . . . . . . . 56 

Chapter VIII. — Coal Resources and Oil Prospects. 

Wairio Coalfield 

Coal-mea.sures and Coal-seams 
Structure of Coal-measures 

Quested 's Coal Area 

Ohai Coalfield . . 
Bojehole Records 


Ohai Coalfield — continued. 
Analyses of Ohai Coals 
Amount of Available Coal 

Other Potential Coal Areas 

Use of Pulverized Coal . . 

Prospects of an Oil-discovery 



Chapter IX. — Limestones, Clays, and Cements. 


Classification of Clays 

Percentage Range of Clay Constituents . . 

Residual Clays 

Transjiorted Clays 

Marly Clays of the Sunnyside-Blackmount Basin, 
Waiau Valley 

Clays of Clifden-Lillburn Basin 




Clays — continu ed. 


Clays of Mararoa Basin 

.. 72 


Clays of Wairio-Nightcaps Area 

.. 72 


Proportion of Clay Substance . . 

.. 7.3 


High-temperature Tests of Clays 

.. 73 


Birchwood Clays 

.. 74 


.. 75 


Economics of Cement-manufacture 

.. 76 



.. 77 


Facing page 
I\Iap showing Solid Geology of Part of Westein Southland . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 

Geological Map of Parts of Wairaki and Wairio Survey Districts, showing Solid Geology of Nightcaps, Waiuo, 

and Ohai Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 


1. Section along Right Bank of Waiau River, from Clifden Bridge northwards 

2. Section from Caves Road, half a mile from Clifden Bridge south-east to Waiau River 

3. Section from Waiau River to Ligar Creek, one mile below Blackmount homestead . . 

4. Section from Franldin Mountains across Lake Te Anau to the Earl IMountains 

5. Section from Moretown across White Range to Quested 's 

6. Section at Clapp's Opencast Coal-mine 

7. Section from IMount Linton Opencast to Trig. U Ridge — oblique to strike 
















Plate VIII. 


View looking across Lake Te Anau towards Middle Fiord 
Outlet of Lake .Uanapouri, looking towards Kepler Mountains . . 
Cliaton Canon from Top of McKinnon Pass . . 

View of Mountains on West Side of Lake Te Anau, showing Even Crest of Ancient Peneplain 
View looking up C'linton Valley from Head of Lake Te Anau 
Mount Balloon from Top of McKinnon Pass . . 

View looking across Lake Manapouri, with Tertiary Conglomerates in foreground on right . . 
Frankhn Mountains on West Side of Lake Te .Inau. The view shows Long Dip-slopes of lilted 
Tertiary Strata. 

Facing page 







Scope of Work 

Climate and llainfall 





The Salt-meadows and Salt-swamp 
The Meadow Zone, from Sea-lev 




Flora — conlin ited. 

River-bed Assemblajje of Plants 

The Zone of INIixed Hush, from Sca-level uj) f 

1,200 ft. 
The Forest Zone, from 1,200 ft 
The Sutialfjine Zone, from .'} 

:5,50<) ft. 
The Alpine Zone, from ;{,r)00 ft. uj) to (),()0() 
Aeknowledstnents . . 


up to 3,000 
5,000 ft. up 

ft. 11 

.. 11 
ft. 1 1 
.. 12 


The area dealt with in tliis report lies to the west of the Takitimu Mountains, and includes the 
Waiau Valley and the country Ipng immediately to the westward of the chain of lakes drained by 
the Waiau River. A detailed examination was made of the Nightcaps, Wairio, and Ohai coal- 
fields with the view of tracing the relationship existing between the coal-measures of these areas 
and the Tertiary strata of the Waiau Valley. The western limits of the potential coal-bearing 
Tert.iary rocks were defined from Port Craig, on the south-west side of Te Waewae Bay, northward 
to Blue Chff, Lake Hauroto, Lake Monowai, Lake Manapouri, and the upper end of Lake Te Anau. 
The middle and lower parts of the Waiau Valley, and the area extending from Lake Monowai 
southward to Lake Hauroto and Port Craig, had previously not been geologically examined. And, 
except the reconnaissance survey of the country lying east of Lake Te Anau by Professor S. H. Cox 
in 1878 and the work of Mr. R. A. Farquharson at Round Hill in 1910, the western part of South- 
land has received Uttle attention from New Zealand geologists. 


The present examination was intended to be, in a measure, supplementary to the electrification 
scheme recently initiated by the Southland Electrification Board. Special attention was devoted 
to the probable extension of the Nightcaps and Ohai coal-measures into the Waiau Valley, and 
to the occurrence of brick and pottery clays and of Umestones and marls suitable for the manu- 
facture of Portland cement. 

The research carried out by the author revealed the existence of large deposits of valuable 

clays, and of Umestones and marls from which cement of good quality may be manufactured. It 

seems more than probable that cement-maldng will eventually develop into a flourishing Southland 

industry, the early stages of which will be stimulated by the demands of the electrification scheme. 

1— Geol. Bull. No. 2:>. 

A considerable area of good brown coal exists in the Ohai basin, and potential coal-bearing 
areas occur in the Waiau Valley. A seam of hard brown coal was discovered on the eastern shore 
of Lake Te Anau ; and pieces of coal that may lead to important discoveries were found on the 
west side of that lake. 


The region covered by this report possesses two distinct types of climate — namely, that of the 
Waiau Valley and foothills, and that of the highlands. 

In the Waiau Valley during the summer and spring months the temperature ranges from 
52° F. to 84° F. in the shade, and in winter from a few degrees below 32° F. to 63° F. Generally 
the summer is warm and genial, and the winter cold and bracing. The rainfall ranges from 32 in. 
to 44 in. a year, and is most abundant in winter and spring, and least from the end of January 
till the middle of May. 

During winter and early spring the tops of the Takitimu Mountains and of the ranges on the 
west side of the Waiau Valley are snow-covered ; and at times the snow may creep down to the 
flats in the upper part of the main valley, but as a rule it disappears in a few hours, or 
a few days at the utmost. Years of exceptional dryness and excessive rainfall are known, but 
European occupation has been so short that probably the driest and wettest seasons have not 
yet been recorded. 

Concerning the rainfall and snowfall on the Takitimu Mountains and the ranges of the alpine 
divide nothing whatever is known. But if we may judge by the rainfall records of other mountain- 
chains in the same latitude we shall probably not be far wrong if we place the rainfall in this part 
of the highlands of south-west Southland somewhere between 92 in. and 154 in. a year. 


In a mountain region so profoundly faulted and glaciated it is not surprising to find many 
lakes, tarns, and lagoons. 

Lake Te Anau is the largest lake in the South Island. Its length is thirty-eight miles, and 
its breadth ranges from one to six miles. The three western arms or fiords of the lake range from 
ten to eighteen miles in length and from one to three miles in breadth. The area of the lake is 
132 square miles. The mean surface-level is 679 ft. above sea-level, and the greatest depth, which 
occurs near the entrance to the North Fiord, is 806 ft., or 127 ft. below sea-level. 

Lake Manapouri* is irregular in shape, being deeply indented by bays> and fiord-like arms. 
Its surface is broken by many small islands ; and dense forest vegetation clothes both the islands 
and surrounding mainland down to the water's edge. Manapouri may justly claim to be the most 
beautiful and picturesque lake in New Zealand. The surface of the lake is 599 ft. above the sea. 
The greatest depth, which is found about a mile west of Pomona Island and immediately opposite 
the entrance of the South Arm, is 1,458 ft., or 859 ft. below sea-level. The length of the lake 'is 
eighteen miles, the greatest breadth six miles, and the area about fifty square miles. 

Lake Monowaif Ues 676 ft. above the sea. It is about fourteen miles in length, and has an 
average breadth of three-quarters of a mile, its surface area being about eleven square miles. In 
shape it resembles a well-made boomerang ; and it lies in a narrow caiion, on both sides of which 
the mountains rise abruptly from the water's edge. The depth of the lake is unknown, but the 
steepness of the bounding walls would indicate a considerable depth. At the lower end there is 
a glacial moraine through which the present oiitlet has been excavated by the Monowai River, 
which drains the lake. To what depth the lake is moraine-contained is not known. The morainic 
matter rests on Tertiary marine clays, which are well exposed on the banks of the Borland River 

♦Keith Lucas: A Bathymetrical Survey of the Lakes of New Zealand, The Geogr. Jour., vol. 23, pp. 755-59, 
1904, with map. 

t This lake was named b3' James McKerrow, F.R.G.S. The name is not pure Maori, as many suppose, but a hybrid 
derived from the Greek tnonos = alone, and Maori ^cai = water. From these McKerrow derived Monowai = lonely 


near Monowai Flat. Probably the depth of the glacial drift is not great. The steep even moun- 
tain-wall on the south side of the lake, unbroken by spurs or deep watercourses, is an evidence of 
intense Pleistocene glacial erosion. 

Lake Monowai lies in a long narrow basin, hemmed in on all sides by steep mountains. As 
a consequence its restricted watershed is fed only by small torrential streams with short courses. 

Lake Hauroko* (or, as more correctly designated on old maps, Hauroto) is separated 
from Lake Monowai by the Kaherekoau Mountains on the north side and from Lake Poteriteri 
by the Princess Mountains on the west side. It lies 514 ft. above the sea. Its length is about 
twenty-two miles, and mean breadth a little mider a mile and a half, giving a surface area of 
some thirty-tno miles. St. Mary's Bay, with an area of about six square miles, is shallow, but 
of the depth of other parts nothing is known at present. Except at St. Mary's Bay the lake is 
bomided by steep caiion-like walls. It runs back almost to the heart of the main divide, at one 
place reaching with'n twelve miles of the head of Dusky Sound. Lake Hauroto is a typical 
fresh-water fiord occupying a depression in the floor of a profound mountain canon. At |)resent 
the lake is drained by the Wairaurahiri River, which flows south and enters the sea about five 
miles west of Sandhill Point. This rapid river falls 514 ft. in its course of twenty-four miles, 
and for most of that distance runs in a rugged rocky gorge. 

In glacial times Lake Hauroto belonged to the Waiau River sy.stem, and was drained by the 
Lillburn, which joins the Waiau two miles above Clifden. The Hauroto glacier, before its final 
retreat, piled up its terminal moraine on the east side of St. Mary's Bay to a height of several 
hmidred feet, thereb}'' completely blocking up the Lillburn outlet. At tlie present time the 
Lillburn rises about two miles from Lake Hauroto. 

After the blocking of the Lillburn outlet the lake found a new outlet by way of the 
Waikoau River, which flows into the sea near Blue Cliff, on Te Waewae Bay. Sub-sequently, 
when the present outlet was formed, drainage of the lake by the Waikoau outlet ceased. At the 
present time the source of the north branch of the Waikoau River reaches within three-quarters 
of a mile of the lake. The ground between tiie lake and the Waikoau is low and swampy; and 
since the distance to the sea by the Waikoau is much less than by the Wairauraliiri, which now 
drains the lake, we may surmise that the abandonment of the shorter for the longer route was 
caused by the form(>r being blocked by an accumulation of ice on the south side of St. Mary's 

Lake Hauroto is fed at its upper end by the Hay River coming in from the nortli-west, and 
the Templeton River coming in from the north, both of which are large streams. Many mountain- 
torrents enter the lake from both the Princess and Kaherekoau mountains, but, exce|)t the 
Caroline 'Burn, which drains the east side of the Princess Mo im tains, all are small and unimportant, 
though their aggregate flow is considerable. 

Lake Poteriteri lies from three and a half to ten miles west of Lake Hauroto. Its surface 
is 94 ft. above sea-level, or 420 ft. lower than that of Lake Hauroto. The length of the lake is 
seventeen miles, and its general trend almost due north and south. The breadth for the most 
part ranges from three-quarters of a mile to a mile. Only in a length of four short miles, near 
the lower end, does the breadth widen to a mile and a quarter. The lake is drained by thi? 
rapid-flowing Waitutu River, whose course from the outlet to the sea is some eight miles 

The lake is fed by many small streams, and by the Princess Burn, wliich enters the head 
of the lake, and by the Charlton Burn, which drains Lake Mouat. The Princess Burn heads back 
almost to the source of the Hay River, wliile the Charlton Burn drains the eastern slopes of the 
Cameron Mo im tains. 

Lake Hakapoua lies six miles west of the south end of Lake Poteriteri. It is a tidal sheet 
of water four miles long and a mile wide. This lake drains a relatively large area, and is fed 

♦According to the Maori Dictionary of Archdeacon William Williams, D.C.L. (2nd ed., London, 18.52), and 
Tregear's Maori-Polynesian Comparative DiHionary (Wellington, 1891), roko is nf)t a Maori or Polyne.sian word. In 
Maori rata i.s the only word for lake, Hauroko is undoubtedly a corruption of Hauroto. 


by the Big Bum, a considerable stream. It is drained by the Big River, or Patupo, which is 
three miles long. 

The general trend of lakes Hakapoiia, Poteriteri, and Hauroto, and of the western half of 
Lake Monowai, is north and south. And it is not a little singular that in passing from north- 
east to south-west these lakes overlap one another in echelon. 


The Waiau, with its chain of lakes and tributary streams, is the dominant river-system of 
western Southland, and ranks among the great rivers of New Zealand. From the main divide 
on the west Lake Te Anau is fed by many large rivers, among them the Clinton River, which 
enters the lake near Glade House. Farther south the Glaisnock River flows into the head of 
the North Arm. It drains a large area lying between the Franklin and Stuart mountains, and 
its headwaters reach back within two miles of Bligh Sound. The streams draining into the 
north-west and south-west arms of the Middle Fiord are small, except when swollen by heav}' 
rains or melting snow. The coimtry at the head of the South Fiord is drained by the Esk 
Burn and Gorge Bum. The former rises at Lake Duncan, which lies only four miles from the 
head of Nancy Sound. In its course lie Lake Te Au and Lake Hilda, both of which occupy 
rock-basins. Gorge Burn drains se^en small mountain-lakes, the largest of which. Lake Hall, 
lies at an altitude of 2,625 ft. above the sea, and is less than two miles from the Gear Arm of 
Bradshaw Sound. 

The country lying on the east side of Lake Te Anau is drained by the Eglintoii River, 
which rises on the western slopes of the Livingstone Mountains, and by tlie Upukerora River, whose 
headwaters rise on the southern slopes of Te Anau Hill. 

The only large stream flowing into Lake Manapouri is the Grebe River, which rises at Lake 
Green, near Lake Monowai, and rims north, eventually flowing into the head of the South Arm. 

The largest tributary of the Waiau River is the Mararoa River, which joins the Waiau seven 
miles below the outlet of Lake Manapouri. The Mararoa River rises in the high country lying 
between the Livingstone and Eyre mountains. One branch of this river reaches within six 
miles of Lake Wakatipu. Lower dowTi the Waiau Valley come in the Borland Burn, opposite 
Blackmount ; the Monowai River, from Lake Monowai : and the Lillbum, which heads nearly 
back to Lake Hauroto. The only large stream coming in from the east is the Wairaki River, 
which drains the southern slopes of the Takitimu Mountains. During the wet season the Orawia 
River, which rises on the west side of the Longwood Range, becomes swollen to the size of a 
small river. Normally it is a very small stream. * 



Apparently the only form of indigenous mammalian life represented in this district is the 
long-tailed bat {Chalmolobiis morio), which is not uncommon in the middle and lower parts of 
the Waiau Valley. 


The indigenous bird-Life is well represented, and some forms that are generally thought to 
be rare are fairly numerous. On the other hand, some species that were common on the eastern 
Side of the main divide thirty years ago are exceedingly rare or altogether extinct. Nothing 
was seen of the New Zealand quail, fern -bird, robin, or South Island thrush, though some of 
them, may still survive in secluded places.f 

* The scientific names quoted are founded (with some modifications as respect trinomial names) upon Matthews 
and Iredale's "Reference List" as given by Professor W. B. Benh>^m in Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 46, pp. 188-2.04, 1914. 
t A piir of robins was seen by the author in the Eglinton Valley near Lake Giinn on 14th February, 1921. 



The South Island tomtit {Mijiomoira macrocephala) was seen as solitary pairs at Lake 
Hauroto, Blue Cliff, Manapouri, and Clinton Valley, at elevations ranging from sea-level to 
2,500 ft. above the sea. 

The ground-lark, or pihoihoi {Anthns )wca'seela»(liu'), is fairly common in the open parts 
cf the Waiau Valley between the mouth of the Wairaki River and Blackmount. 

The South Island grey wirbler, or riroriro {Maorigeri/cjone igata Q. & G.), is common every- 
where in the plantations around homesteads, and in the forest up to 2, .500 ft. above the sea. 
At one time a shy solitude-l')ving l)ird, the riroriro seems to be adapting itself to the new 
environment created by the advance of settlement. 

The tui (Proslhemadcni noixeseelandiu', Gmelin) frecjueiits the forest lands in the lower part 
of the Waiau Valley and in the country between Tuatapere and Blue Cliff. On no occasion 
was it seen at an altitude exceeding 1,000 ft. ab()V(> the s(>a. It is rare in beech forests, even 
when not uncommon in the neighboui'ing mi.xed bush. 

The bell-bird, or makomako {Anthornis melamira), whose deep, melodious, bell-like notes are 
fanu'd in Maori song, is common not only in Southland but throughout the whole of Otago. 
A quarter of a century ago it b<'came so rare that it seemed on the eve of extinction. In the 
past teji years it has reappeared in considerable nunilx-is not only in the native forests, but in 
orchards and plantations. This wonderful songster is usually seen in pairs in winter and the 
breeding season. Early in IVIarch seven of these birds were seen together by the author near 
Sandy Point Hut at Milford Sound. They were prol)ably members of the same fainilv. Thirty 
years ago the bell-bird was excessively shy, and as a rule poured out its melody from the leafy 
shelter of some liigh tree. The present-day bird is less timid, and often ventures into scantily 
clad trees standing out in the open. Of this new habit examples could be multi))lied in plenty. 
In April, 1918, the bell-bird was one of the commonest of the indigenous birds around Hampden, 
and generally showed as little concern at the approach of man as the imported blackbird. On 
one occasion a full-grown bird alighted on tlie dead lind) of a solitary tree overhanging the road, 
near the stone bridge at Gillies's homestead, and with full throat poured out its wonderfid 
contralto not nu)re than four yards from the author and his wife. The seven seen at Milford 
Sound flitted among the low branches of the New Z'aland fuchsia without fear or concern. 
At the time of writing (Ai)ril, 1920) a solitary bell-bird sings almost daily in a walnut-tree 
close to the porch of the author's house at Otago University, Dunedin. 

The brown creeper (Finschia novceseelandice) is sometimes seen in the forest between Lake 
Monowai and Lake Mana])ouri. In February, 1918, the writer saw a pair in tlu; bush on the 
south-west slope of Mount Earnslaw at an altitude of 3,000 ft. above the sea. 

The white-eye {Zostewps lateralis tasmanica Mathews) — by Europeans sometimes called tlie 
silver-eye or blight-bird— was seen at Chfden in February. This is an AustraHan bird that was 
unknown in New Zealand before 1856. Its Maori name " tauhou," meaning " stranger," refers 
to its recent arrival in New Zealand. The white-eye appears about Dunedin in spring in 
companies of half a score or more. 

The kingfisher (Sauropatis sanctus forsteri Mathews and Iredale), once so comnum on the 
banks of streams at all altitudes below 1,000 ft., is seldom seen in the Waiau Valley. 

The yellowhead (Mohoua ochrocephala Gmelin) is occasionally met with in the forest 
country around Lake Monowai. A small flock of eight was seen early in March near the upper 
end of Lake Ada in the Arthur Valley. 

Early in February a single representative of the long-tailed cuckoo (Uroch/namis taitevsis 
Sparrman), the " kohoperoa " of the Maori, was seen at Lake Hauroto. It flitted around the 
camp-fire at dusk, its approach being heralded by a plaintive call. The shining cuckoo 
(Lamprococcyx Incidus GmeUn) was not met with, though it is known to frequent the same forest. 

The morepork, or ruru (Spiloglaiix novcBseelandiai Gmelin), is occasionally heard on the 
edge of the forest up to a height of 7,000 ft. above the sea. 

The kaka (Nestor meridionalis) is common everywhere in the forest country on the west side 
of the Waiau River at all altitudes up to 2,000 ft. above the sea. Every evening at sundown 


they began circling around the Sutherland Falls and Quintin huts ; and almost every night their 
harsh calls could be heard up till midnight, high up on the wooded slopes of the main divide. 

The kea {Nestor nolabilis Gould) is seen at all altitudes above 2,000 ft., but its favourite 
haunt during the daytime is the grassy mountain-slope above the bush-hne. At night it perches 
on the limbs of dead trees at the upper edge of the forest, somewhere about 3,000 ft. above the 
sea. In stormy weather the kea will occasionally descend to the floor of the mountain-valleys, 
and peich at an altitude of 1,000 ft., or somewhat less, above the sea. 

In his tiavels in this and Lake Wakatipu regions the author was unable to gather from the 
runholdcrs, or the shepherds, any evidence that would substantiate the charge of sheep-killing 
laid at the door of this bird. In the summer of 1880-81, while assisting Mr. Alexander McKay 
in a geological reconnaissance of the Ohau, Wanaka, and Matukituki country, diligent inquiry 
among the shepherds failed to disclose any satisfactory evidence of the rumours then beginning 
to find their way into the newspapers which credited tbe kea with sheep-killing. In every case 
the evidence was found by the author to rest on the statement of some shepherd who, on being 
interviewed, invariably admitted that his charge against the kea was based on statements made 
to him by some other shepherd. In every case that was investigated the bird was found guilty 
on second-hand evidence alone. Though keas are plentiful in the Tasman Valley, the guides at 
Mount Cook Hermitage assert without hesitation that the kea is no sheep-killer in that region. 
Possibly there may be parts of the Canterbury mountains where the kea has developed an 
appetite for mutton, but in every case the evidence should be sifted by shrewd cross-examination. 
Generally, New Zealand scientists consider that the charge against the kea has not been proven. 
On the other hand, the runholders are divided in their opinion ; and, whether guilty or not guilty, 
the law decrees the kea an outlaw that may be destroyed at sight. The subject is surely one 
that ought to engage the attention of some unprejudiced investigator.* 

Parrakeets {Cyanorhamphus), once so common on the fringe of all our great forests, are now 
relatively rare. Three of the yellow-fronted species were met with at Lake Hauroto. Parrakeets 
were heard, but not seen, in the lower Clinton Valley. They probably belonged to the red-fronted 
or yellow-fronted species, both of which are reported to survive in the Te Anau country. 

The beautiful wood-pigeon (Hemiphaga novceseelandice Gmehn) is abundant in all the low- 
land forests lying west of the Waiau River. At Blackmount homestead, where indigenous birds 
find themselves in a protecting sanctuary, the native pigeon is a frequent visitor, and in early 
summer takes a heavy toll of the cherries growing in the orchard. By the use of a ladder the 
author made a close inspection of two pigeons roosting in a large cherry-tree. They were so 
tame that they viewed his approach with unconcern till within three yards of them, when they 
moved their heads uneasily, but immediately settled themselves in an attitude of confidence on 
finding that no nearer approach was attempted. 

It was a pleasant surprise to find that the dark-brown woodhen, or weka {Gallirallus 
hrachypterus Lafresnaye), which for two or three decades seemed in danger of extinction, now 
abounds in all the Fiordland forest country. Every camping-place was immediately adopted by 
a pair of birds that fiercely resented trespass by all other members of the tribe. The grunting 
sounds, shrill calls, domestic squabbles, and impudent thieving of the weka were reminiscent of 
camping-days in the alpine regions of Otago forty years ago. 

The swamp-hen, or pukeko {Porphyrio melananotus), whose brilhant colouring seems to fit in 
badly with its usual haunts, is rare. 

During the progress of the survey diUgent inquiry was made as to the probable existence 
of the large flightless rail, the takahe {Maidellornis hochstetteri), in the Hauioto, Monowai, Te Anau 
country, but without finding any evidence that would lead to the beUef that tliis beautiful 
bird was still alive. If not already extinct it must be excessively rare. 

The boom of the bittern {Botaurus poecilopttilus) was heard only once in the neighbourhood 
of Lake Hauroto. 

The white heron, or kotuku {Herodias alba maoriana Mathews and Iredale), never common 
since European settlement began, is now exceedingly rare. A single representative appeared 

* See G. R. Marriner's papers in Trans. N.Z. Inst., vols. 39 and 40, 1907, 1908. 

in different parts of the Taieri Plain during tiie spring of 1919, but no trace of this beautiful 
bird was seen in the Waiau country. 

The black shag {Phalacrocomx carho) is abundant at Lake Hauroto, Lake Monowai, in 
parts of Lake Manapouri and Lake Te Anau, and at Milford Sound. 

The crested grebe {Podiceps cristatus) is common at Lake Hauroto, but was not seen at 
Lake Manapouri or Lake Te Anau. 

The paradise duck, or putangitangi (Cnsarca variegata), is more than holding its own 
everywhere in the South Island. In south-west Southland and western Otago it is numerous 
on the grassy flats of all the larger rivers. At Lake Ada they were present in scores early 
in March of the present year. While at the Quintin huts the writer frec[uently heard the 
" honk "' of this beautiful bird after dark, as in small coveys it flew up the Arthur Valley 
on its way across McKinnon's Pass to Lake Te Anau. 

The blue duck, or whio {Hymetiolaitnus malacorhynchos), is met with in the; bed of almost 
every mountain-torrent. The shorter streams seem to be in possession of a solitary pair. 
The whio has a slaty-blue colour that often harmonizes perfectly with its rocky environment, 
and but for its plaiiitive call it might easily be overlooked. Tliis bird seems to be as 
plentiful as it was forty years ago. 

The grey duck, or parera (Anas superciliosa), and the grey teal (Nettion caslaneum) are 
found throughout the whole of the Waiau and Milford Sound country, the former being 
plentiful. These birds range from New Zealand to Australia and Java, and are in little 
danger of extermination, notwithstanding the great slaughter during the shooting season. 

The black teal, or pupango (Fuligida novcpsedandui;), was seen at Lake Hauroto and 
Lake Ada, but is not common. 

The kiwi, the sole survivor of New Zealand's wingless birds — a quaint survival that in 
its structure appears to represent several different orders — is now scarce even in the 
unfrequented fastnesses of the main divide. The peculiar whistling cry of the kiwi was 
heard only on two occasions, once near the Sutherland Falls and once on the wooded 
mountain-slope immediately north of the Quintin huts. 

The green mountain-parrot, or kakapo {Strigops hahroptilus), once so common on the 
scrub and grass country above 3,000 ft., is now rare. Well-beaten tracks made by this bird 
traversed the upland grass-lands in all directions a few decades ago, but are now rarely seen. 

The harrier-hawk, or kahu (Circus gouldi), is common in all the; open country. The 
sparrow-hawk, or karewarewa (Nesierax australis), though apparently holding its own, is by 
no means plentiful. Two full-grown s])ecimens were seen near Lake Monowai early in March. 

In the month of January the white-fronted tern (Sterna striata), the j)ied stilt (Himantopus 
leucocephahis alba), the redbill (Hcematopus niger unicolor), and the dotterel (Pluviorhynchus 
obscurus) were met with on the coast between Orepuki and Mussel Beach, on the south side 
of Te Waewae Bay. 


It is now recognized that the philosophical study of the develoj)ment of plant and animal 
hfc is more im])ortant than the mere collecting, technical description, and classifying of 
species. At most times cynical, Carlyle scoffed with perhaps unnecessary fierceness at all 
work of this kind, which he described as the progeny of methodists possessed of the pigeon- 
hole type of mind. Herbert Spencer, himself an ardent evolutionist and of calmer judgment 
than Carlyle, was willing to admit that the counting of the scales on a fish, the segments 
of a crustacean, the ribs of a mollusc, or the petals of a flower might possess a certain 
value if carried out with discrimination as to the limits of variability. As these limits were 
themselves variable, he insisted that such mechanical work was more often a hindrance 
than a help to science. It is perhaps comforting to find that he extolled the work of WiUiam 
Smith and of the geologists who endeavoured to unravel the earth's history by patient 
mapping and the record of rock-relationships. There is no doubt that in their vehement 


denunciation of what they called " mechanical intellectuality " both Carlyle and Spencer did 
an injustice to scientists engaged in descriptive work. At the same time Spencer's advocacy 
of genetic as opposed to morphological methods of investigation powerfully impressed con- 
temporary Continental workers. 

Dr. L Cockayne, F.K.S., a close follower of the Continental pchool of ecologists, was the 
fipst in Now Zealand to employ genetic methods of research founded on a realization of the 
need of a closer scrutiny of the progressive changes arising from adaptation to environment 
and plant-assemblages than was deemed necessary by early botanists. To give a surer 
basis for diagnosis in mineral occurrence, the morphological study of ore-deposits has long 
given place to the genetic. And it is certain that if lists of plants, with their technical 
descriptions, were supplemented with notes on the conditions of rainfall and drainage, situation 
of station in respect of prevailing winds and sunshine, character of rock-formation and soil, 
a clue would be found as to the determining conditions of plant-morphology and plant- 

In a plant - assemblage the different units must be subject to, and approve of, the same 
dominant influences, of which plant-food, station, and drainage are perhaps the most important. 
But even in the same station certain plants appear to possess the peculiar selective power 
of abstracting from the soil some mineral constituent that has become necessary to its growth 
and well-being. The lead-plant {Amorpha canescens) is abundant in Michigan, Wisconsin, and 
Ilhnois. It is a low shrub covered with a hoary down, and is beUeved to flourish best in 
soil containing lead. The calamine pansy {Viola calaminaria) is peculiar to the calamine- 
bearing hills of Aix-la-Chapelle in Rhenish Prussia. Analysis has revealed the presence of 
zinc in the plant and in the ash. In Spain prospectors for phosphates are guided in their 
search by a creeping-plant called Convolvulus althcBoides, which is common on soils containing 
a high percentage of calcium phosphate. 

If we admit biological continuity we must recognize that species as defined by naturalists are 
separated by purely artificial barriers. Hence the conception of immutable kinds must be accepted 
with great reservation. So long have we been familiar with the mechanical subdivision of organisms 
into genera and species that it is difficult to divest the mind of the fallacy that species are distinct 
kinds. But sj^ecies cannot be created by verbal definition. As contended by Spencer, it is in 
the variation of the type that we see the difTerentiation that in countless thousands of years has 
produced the wider differences in plant and animal life. Probably all variation is the result of 
geological happenings, and of the climatic changes arising therefrom. 

Plant-Life not only arranges itself in ascending horizontal zones, but also in assemblages that 
are influenced by such factors as the wetness or dryness of the soil, salinity of the soil and atmo- 
sphere, composition of the rocks and resulting soil, conditions of soil and subsoil drainage, relative 
acidity or alkalinity of soil, plant-societies, light and shade, relative thermal conductivity of soil, 
prevailing winds and rainfall. Besides these outstanding conditions come the less known but 
not less important activities of nitrogen, silica, lime, and the influence of pathogenic bacteria. 
Moreover, there may be other minute but determining factors that have not yet been recognized. 
Among these last, selective absorption may not be the least. And as the appearance of new orders 
may arise from the development of a structure, extinction may result from the exaggeration of a 
structure or the removal of an inhibiting influence. Clearly the future of plant-physiology lies 
in the domain of biochemistry and ecology. 

Several different plant - stations may exist in the same horizontal zone. Thus in the zone 
from sea-level up to 1,000 ft. we have coastal sand-dmies, salt-meadow lands and salt swamps, 
river-terraces, river-beds, and fresh-water swamps, each peopled by plants that have adapted 
themselves to their peculiar environment. 

Many forms of plant-life, perhaps most, are unable to survive certain changes of condition. 
Examples of this could be multiplied by the score. The case of the common rush {Juncus effusus) 
is familiar to every farmer. This pest grows on wet midrained lands, and flourishes most 
luxuriantly when its roots are in contact with stagnant water that has become acid through the 

decomposition of decaying vegetation. As soon as the land is drained, so that the water is 
abk> to circnlate in the subsoil, the rushes disappear automatically, being unable to live in soil 
containing a certain minimum amount of acidity. The same rcsidt is obtained by neutralizing 
the acidity by the unstinted application of lime, but the results are less permanent than those 
obtained by good drainage. The degrees of minimum acidity and alkalinity required by different 
fodder plants and cereals have yet to be investigated. 

Many plants possess considerable powers of adaptability to changing conditions. Notable 
among New Zealand plants of this kind are the native heaths and brooms, wliich protect 
themselves in dry situations by diminishing the numbers and size of their leaves, or by 
discarding leaves altogether, thereby reducing the effective area from which the plant - water 
passes into the atmosphere as w,nter-vapiiur. 

The effect of a plentiful supply of moisture on the well-known wild-irishman {Discaria 
toumatou) is remarkable. On the dry river-terraces it is stunted, gnarled, bare of leaves, and 
covered with thorns ranging from 1 in. to 2 in. or more in lengtli. Along tlie edges of the 
lakes its branches are covered with green leaves Jin. h)ng ; and the thorns, though not 
altogether sup])ressed, are seldom over fin. in length. In shaded moist valleys it sometimes 
grows to a tree 20 ft. high and 10 in. in diameter. 

The botanical zones and subzones that may be distinguished in western Southland are : 
(1) The salt-meadows and salt-swamp zone; (2) the meadow zone, from sea-level up to 1,000 ft.; 
(3) the river-bed assemblage of plants; (I) the zone of mixed bush, from sea-level up to 
1,200 ft.; (5) the forest zone, from 1,200 ft. up to 3,000 ft.; (6) the subalpine zone, from 
3,000 ft. up to 3,500 ft. ; (7) the alpine zone, from 3,500 ft. up to 0,000 ft. 

The Salt-meadows and Salt-swamp Zone. 

A common plant of the salt marshes is the reddish-brown rush-like oioi {Leplocarpus 
oimplex). Tiiough essentially maritime, it has been rej)orted as occurring ne;ii' hot si)rings at 
Rotorua and Tokaanu (Lake Taupo). Dr. Cockayne has recently, so he informs the writer, 
met with tile oioi at Lake Manaj)ouri. These exceptional occurrences are probably due to 
the existence of some of the peculiar conditions that make the sea-littoral the normal habitat 
of this plant. Its presence in the volcanic region of the interior of the North Island may 
arise from sodium and magnesium salts deposited in the swampy soil by certain hot springs, 
which are known to ije rich in these constituents ; but there are no hot springs at Lake 
Manapouri, and therefore we must search for the cause in some other direction. Below the 
screen of glacial drift at Lake Manapouri there lies a great thickness of marine Tertiary 
sandstones and clays. Now, incrustations of salt (sodium chloride with some magnesium 
chloride) are common at the outcrops of Tertiary clays in the Awaterc Valley, Baton River, 
Upper Wanganui, and elsewhere in the Dominion, in all cases deposited where seepages of 
saline waters issue at the surface from cracks in the soft marine strata. Though no seepages 
of brine can be seen at Lake Manapouri, it is not improbable that such do occur, creating 
in favourable situations the salt-marsh conditioTis that attract the oioi. The occurrence of 
this plant so far inland is of sufficient importance to warrant careful investigation. 

Besides the oioi, other forms met with in the salt meadows near the sea are the pale-green 
sedge Carex lilorosa, the densely tufted Juncus pallidum, the small grass Atropis slricla, and the 
daisy-like Cotida dioica. This last, though most abundant near the sea, curiously enough ranges 
up to 3,000 ft. above sea-level, a result perhaps of certain geological happenings. 

The Meadow Zone, from Sea-lkvel up to 1,000 ft. 

This zone lies mainly within the tract of cultivated lands or of lands devoted to pastoral 
purposes. The greater part of the open flats along the Waiau River have been ploughed, 
while all the open downs n the valley of that river have been swept by fire so often that 
most oi the native vegetation has become exterminated. Conspicuous among the survivors 


are the tussofk-giasscs {Poa Cfcspilosn and Festnca ruhra), tli^ graceful toetoe {Arumlo 
conspicua), and the New Zealand flax {I'honnium tcnax). In wet ground and in undrained 
swainps the wiry niggerhead (Carex secla) is abundant ; and in recently drained land its dead 
stumps afford shelter for higher forms of vegetation. 

In the scrub-covered patches we find near the sea Olearia angustifolia. Behind the first 
fringe Olearia Colensoi and Scnecio rotiindijolins are plentiful. On dry, stonv, wind-swept places 
the heath Dracophyllum longifolium has established itself at an altitude far below its usual 
habitat. The poisonous jilant tutu (Coriaria ruscijolia) is common along the river-banks and 
along the sides of bush tracks. Isolated trees or clumj)s of kowhai {SopJiora tetraptera) ; of 
the cabbage-tree, or ti of the Maori (Cordi/lim australis) ; and the beautiful ribbonwood 
(Plagianthus helulinus) are common on the river-flats of the Waiau Valley above Clifden. On 
the gravelly morainic river-flats between the Waiau River and Lake Monowai the tea-tree, or 
manuka {Leptospermum scojiarmm), is abundant, and in places forms a dense almost impenetrable 
scrub. Matted clumps of Coprosma of several species abound on the dry terraces. 

River-bed Assemblage of Plants. 

The Waiau River for the greater part of its course runs in a channel bounded by steep 
well-defined banks. For a great part of the year the river occupies almost the whole width 
of its channel, with the result that the assemblage of river-bed plants frequently met with in 
other parts of Southland is but sparingly represented. On the silt-banks in the upper reaches 
of the Waiau River the subalpine buttercup {Ranunculus Godleyaims) and mountain-tutu {Coriaria 
anguslissima) are often met with. On the silt-formed banks of clear slow-rmming rivulets 
is sometimes seen the beautiful native musk {Mimulus radicans), ranging up to 1,000 ft. above 
the sea. 

The Zone of Mixed Bush, from Sea-level up to 1,200 ft. 

Among the common forest-trees of this zone are the red-pine or rimu {Dacrydium cupressinum), 
miro {Podocarpus ferrugineus) , matai (P. spicatus), totara (P. totara), southern rata {Metrosideros 
lucida), kamahi or so-called red-bircli {Weinmannia racemosa), New Zealand beeches {Nothofagus 
fusca, N. Solanderi, and N. Menziesii), and kawhaka or cedar {Libroce.drus Bidwillii). 

Between the Mararoa River and Lake Manapouri the main road to Te Anau passes across 
a stony, wind-swept, moraine-formed desert dotted with small clumps of the subalpine bog-pine 
of New Zealand {Dacrydium Bidwillii), the effect of which in their desert setting is weirdly 
picturesque. The surface conditions are suggestive of arid rather than bog conditions, and we 
can only suppose that these dwarf pines are clinging to the site of a bog that has become 
drained in comparatively recent years. 

Of the beeches, Nothofagus fusca does not rise above this zone. Grenerally it flourishes in 
Southland and western Otago between 400 ft. and 1,000 ft. above the sea. It grows into stately 
trees, and is never met with except on alluvial river-flats or glacial drift. In no case was it found 
on rocky spurs or ridges. Many fine samples occur near Lake Hauroto and in the lower end of 
the Clinton Valley. 

Tanekaha, the celery or turpentine pine of the settlers {Phyllocladus trichomanoides), is 
common on the swampy morainic flats between the Lillburn River and Lake Hauroto. On the 
forest fringe we meet the green-leaved broadleaf {Griselinia littoralis) ; lancewood, or horoeka 
{Pseudopanax crassifolium) ; makomako {Aristotelia racemosa) ; ribbonwood {Plagianthus belulinus) ; 
white-maple {Carpodetus serratus) ; pepper-tree {Drimys colorata) ; tea-tree, or manuka {Leptospermum 
scoparium) ; the tree-fuchsia, or kotukutuku {Fuchsia excorticata) ; koromiko {Veronica salicifolia) ; 
akeake {Olearia avicennice folia), found up to 2,500 ft. ; five-finger, or patete {Schefflera digitata), 
which ascends to 2,500 ft. in Southland, and is the only native species of this genus in New 
Zealand ; hupiro {Coprosma foetidissima) ; bush-lawyer {Rubus australis) ; supplejack {Rhipogonum 
scandens) ; and clematis {Clematis indivisa). 


Among the woody mistletoes none are more plentiful than the scarlet LorantJms Colensoi, the 
yellowish-red L. Fieldii, and orange-yellow L. flavidus ; the first and last often parasitic on the 
beeches up to 2,000 ft. 

The forest of mixed bush between Blue Cliff and Mussel Beach (Port Craig) contains ferns in 
great variety, the genera Asplenium, Lomaria, and Poh/podium being well represented. The 
feather-like Todea hymeiiophylloides is plentiful in the Arthur Valley, but the Prince of Wales's 
feather {T. superba) was not seen. The peculiar kidney-fern {Trichomanes reniforme) is not 
uncommon in damp places on both sides of the main divide. 

It is noticeable that most ferns prefer the shade of a forest, deep ravine, or steep cliff. They 
seem to thrive best where there is an abundant rainfall, perfect drainage, and freedom from intense 
frost. Among the few ferns that grow in the stagnant water of swamps is the umbrella-fern, or 
tapuwaekotuku {Gleichenia dicarpa). Lycopodiums, the bog-moss {Sphagnum), and numerous 
other mosses are everywhere plentiful in the forests and bogs of south-west Southland. 

The Forest Zone, from 1,200 ft. up to 3,000 ft. 

Above 1,200 ft. the forest changes greatly in character. Through the absence of undergrowth 
it becomes more open ; and, while ferns are less numerous, the forest-floor is still carpeted with 
lycopodiums and mosses. The commonest trees are the beeches Nothofagus Solanderi and N. Menziesii, 
both of which are found growing on alluvial flats and rocky slopes. Next in abundance comes 
the southern rata (Metrosideros liicida), whose favourite haunts are the sides of gorges and the rocky 
slopes of steep ridges. The broadleaf (Griselima littoralis), usually gnarled and stunted, grows up to 
1,500 ft. or more, but is not abundant. Kawhaka, or cedar {Libocedrus Bidwillii), is common in 
wet places, and the heath {Dracophyllinn longijolmm) is abundant in the upper part of the river- 
valleys. The ribbonwood, or manatu [Plagianthus beluUnus), is met with in great abundance in 
the moim tain -valleys up to 1,500 ft. above the sea. 

The Subalpixe Zone, from 3,000 ft. up to 3,500 ft. 

At about 3,000 ft., or 3,200 ft. at the most, we reach the upper limit of the forest ; and from 
this upward to about 3,500 ft. we have the zone of subalpine scrub, fringed at its outer edge with 
a luxuriant belt of tussock (Danlhonia Raoulii). Among the shrubs were noted Copronma parvijlora, 
C. cuneata, C. repens, C. serrulala, Olearia moschata, Senecio bellidioides, S. Haaslii, Carmiclmelia 
Monroi, C. corymbosa, Panax Colensoi, Veronica macrantha, Podocarpus nivalis, Phyllocladus alpinus, 
Drachophyllum Menziesii, and D. strictiim. 

The Alpine Zone, from 3,500 ft. up to 6,000 ft. 

Above the scrub belt we meet the alpine meadowland, the habitat of many beautiful 
mountain-plants. Conspicuous among these are the celmisias, with their daisy heads limmed 
with fine white petals ; the mountain-buttercups, gentians, mat-like raoulias, the mountain- 
carrot, mountain-tutu, ourisias, violas, gaultherias, euphrasias, and many grasses. The 
xerophytes, or plants provided with special contrivances to check transpiration, are represented 
by the whip-cord veronicas, usually met with on dry stony slopes. Some of the more common 
forms identified in the aljiine zone on the west side of the divide were Ranunculus Lyallii, 
R. Buchanani, R. tenuicaulis, Viola Cunninghamii, Coriaria thymifolia, Epilobium conjertifolium, 
Aciphylla Lyallii, Celmisia discolor, C. Haastii, G. coriacea, C. Lyallii, C. laricifolia, C. sessilijlora, 
C. glandulosa, C. ramulosa, Raoulia s'ibulala, R. Hectori, Gentiana montana, Myosotis pulvinaris, 
Veronica Hectori, Ourisia Colensoi, 0. sessilijlora, Euphrasia Antarctica, E. revoluta, Astelia linearis, 
Carex Petriei, Danthonia favescens, Deschampsia tenella, Poa Joliosa, and P. Colensoi, the latter 
the blue-grass of the settlers. Everywhere above the scrub-hne the dominant grass is the 
fescue-tussock {Festuca novcB-zealandicB^. 



The autlior is indebted to Mr. A. W. Rodger, chairman of the Southland Electrification 
Board, and Mr. Charles Cainj)bell, secretary of the Southland League, for much valuable 
assistance. Their local knowledge of the western countr}^ and the readiness with which they 
prepared the way by bringing the author in contact with the settlers best able to render 
assistance in the more inaccessible parts, made it possible in the beginning to formulate a 
definite scheme of operations, which was carried out to the end with little or no variation. 
Among those who rendered valued help should be mentioned Mr. G. E. Charlton (Tuatapere), 
Ml. H. Cuthbert (Sunnyside), Mr. Struan Gardner (Lillburn), Mr. J. A. McLean (Blackmount), 
Mr. W. 3'. A. McGregor (Mount Linton), Mr. A. Morris and Mr. J. Smith (Moretown), Mr. R. 
Donnelly (Wairio), Mr. H. Murrell (Lake Manapouri), and Mr. W. E. Templeton, who, as my 
assistant and guide, freely used his unrivalled knowledge of the country aioimd Lake Hauroto 
and Lake Monowai to further the progress of the survey. 

For the photographs used to illustrate this report acknowledgment is due to Mr. J. J. 
Webster, successor of Muir and Moodie, Dunedin. 

The splendid maps published by the Lands and Survey Department of New Zealand form 
the groundwork on which the geological maps accompanying this report are based. 

The records of the strata passed through in the boreholes drilled in the Ohai Valley are 
published by permission of Mr. A. W. Rodger, for whom the driUing was carried out in 1916. 

Some of the chemical analyses quoted in this report were made at Otago University, but, 
except where otherwise stated in the text, all the analyses that are now published were made 
in the Dominion Laboratory, Wellington, by Dr. J. S. Maclaurin and his staff. Dr. Maclaurin's 
report on the clays of west Southland is a valuable contribution to the economic geology of 
the Dominion. 




General Geological Structure 
Topographical Features 
The Fiordland Peneplain 

Submergence of Peneplain and Formation of 




Extent of Post-Jurassic Peneplain 

.. 16 


Age of Post -Jurassic Peneplain 

.. 18 


The Waiau Fault . . 

.. 20 

Other Faults 

.. 20 



.. 21 


Along the seaward side of the West Coast Sounds there is a bolt of metamorphic rocks 
that strikes about north -south, and dips to the west. The lower division of these rocks, 
towards the head of the Sounds, rests against a vast complex of intrusive diorite and dioritic 
gneiss, and is intensely metamorphosed. It consists of granite-gneiss, various schists, and 
granular limestones that comprise what is called the Dusky Sound Series. To the westward 
the rocks show a gradually decreasing degree of alteration. For the most part they consist 
of mica-schist intercalated with numerous bands of chlorite-schist, and hornblende-schist. Alto- 
gether these schists comprise the division which has been referred to the Maniototo Series. 

Near the coast the mica-schist series is overlain by slaty argillites, altered greywackes, and 
mica-schists in which mica is not strongly developed. These rocks have been ascribed to the 
Preservation Inlet Series of Lower Ordovician age. At Preservation Inlet, a few miles to the 
south of Dusky Sound, the blue slaty argillites of this series contain well-preserved graptolites. 

The intrusive diorites extend from Preservation Inlet to the Darran Mountains, and thence 
to the Bryneira Range, far to the north of the HoUyford Valley. In the Sounds area they 
completely surround the Mana])ouri metamorphic series. Massives of granite, norite, gabbro, 
and dunite are associated with the dioritic complex, which has intruded rocks as late as the 
Maitaian of Permo-Carboniferous age. For wide stretches the diorites exhibit the effects of 
intense compressive stress, but us a rule they are otherwise not much altered. A fine section 
of these intrusive rocks is exposed in the Clinton and Arthur River canons. 

The Takitimu Mountains, which form the eastern wall of the Waiau rift-valley, are com- 
posed of argillites with red bands, and greywackes with which are intercalated beds of pale- 
green aphanitic sandstone and breccia. These rocks extend north to the Bryneira Range, on 
the east side of which they are intruded by diorite, gabbro, norite, and serpentine. 

The floor of the Waiau Valley depression is covered with a thick sheet of faulted and 
tilted Middle Tertiary (Oamaruian) strata that contain valuable seams of brown coal. In 
many places these beds are richly fossiliferous. On the mountains to the east and west of 
the north arm of Lake Te Anau the tilted Oamaruian strata rise to a height of 5,000 ft. above 
the sea. In the floor of the Waiau Valley the Tertiary strata have been deeply eroded, and 
over large areas covered with Pleistocene glacial drifts. 


The dominant physical features of the area in review are the Waiau Valley depression, 
the north -south course of which was determined by jjowerful faults, the bare jocky Takitimu 
Mountains on the east side of the Waiau Valley, and the mountains of the main divide on the 
west, everywhere covered with dense forest. 


The mountain region on the west of the Waiau Valley is an uplifted peneplain, ascending 
from 4,000 ft. in the south to 8,000 ft. in the north. On the western side this sloping plateau 
is gashed with deep, narrow, canon-like Sounds and fiords that with their densely wooded 
slopes compose a picture of inspiring grandeur. On the eastern side lie Lake Manapouri and 
Lake Te Anau, the deep fiord-like arms of which reach far back into the main divide as if 
seeking to join hands with the fiords or fiord-valleys of the West Coast. 

The Takitimu Mountains, ranging generally from 4,000 ft. to 5,300 ft. high, form the eastern 
wall of the Waiau Valley from the Mararoa Plain to the Ohai-Wairio depression, to the south of 
which the valley is bounded by the Longwood Range (2,000 ft. to 3,000 ft.). The Takitimu 
Mountains are arcuate in shape. They present their convex side to the Waiau Valley, with the 
result that the valley gradually narrows till the middle of the crescent, between Blackmount and 
RedclifE, is reached, beyond which the receding upper limb allows the valley at Manapouri to 
open out to its normal width. At the bottle-neck between the Takitimus and Titiroa Range 
the width of the valley varies from six to eight miles. To the north and south of this it 
widens out to twenty miles or more. 


The first reference to the plateau remnants of south-western New Zealand was made by 
Mr. E. C. Andrews (1906) in a paper* on the origin of the Sounds of south-west Southland. 
In a description of the characteristic topographical features he wrote : " Around Milford Sound, 
Lake Te Anau, and Lake Wakatipu there exist numerous sub-horizontal masses and long ridges, 
attaining heights of from 5,000 ft. to 6,000 ft. Above these rise peaks and masses to heights 
of 10,000 ft. Farther south sub-horizontal masses of much less elevation are encountered. These 
are apparently survivals of a flexed surface, the upland itself representing the advanced maturity 
of subaerial erosion (in pre-Tertiary times) when the land was at a much lower elevation." 

If we inspect the recorded heights of the mountain-tops along the ranges of the main divide 
on the west side of the Waiau depression, and of the Livingstone and Takitimu mountains on the 
east side, we are led to the conclusion that these mountain-chains are, as suggested by Mr. Andrews, 
the remnants of an ancient peneplain that was at one time continuous from the Takitimus to the 
Tasman Sea on the west, long prior to the formation of the Waiau Valley. This view is confirmed 
by an examination of the country from the summit of the Bryneira Range on the north, or the 
Takitimu Mountains on the east, from which a commanding view of the whole landscape can be 
obtained. It is at once seen that the mountains of Fiordland, or Titiraurangi,| the Darran 
Mountains, the flat-topped Bryneira Range, the Takitimu, Livingstone, Eyre, and Humboldt 
mountains are the ruins of a continuous plateau that sloped gently to the south and south-east. 
At the time of its formation the Fiordland peneplain was merely the south-west continuation of the 
central Otago peneplain, of which the table-topped Hector, Carrick, Garvie, Old Man, Dunstan, 
Hawkdun, Rock and Pillar, Lammerlaw, and Tapanui ranges are striking survivals. The great 
valleys and lake-basins that separate these well-preserved block mountains owe their origin to 
powerful faults ; while the smaller irregularities are the result of stream erosion along the course of 
minor dislocations. 

Before the dissection of the Fiordland peneplain began the younger Palaeozoic argillites and 
greywackes that compose the Takitimu and Livingstone mountains rested against the crystalline 
rocks of the Manapourian complex. The junction of the two systems followed approximately the 
course of the present Waiau depression. 

An examination of the map shows that the principal arms of the western fiords and lakes lying 
west of the Waiau Valley follow two main directions, intersecting one another at right angles, one 

* E. C. Andrews: The Ice-flood Hypothesis of the New Zealand Sound-basins, Journal of Geology, vol. l-l, p. 28, 

fThe Maori name of the mountain-ranges lying west and north-west of Lake Te Anau. Titiraurangi = the land 
of many peaks piercing the clouds. 



running about north-west and the other south-west. The result of this arrangement is that the 
Fiordland peneplain is dissected, notably on the seaward side, into what Sir James Hector in 1863 
described as " cuboidal blocks.'" In 1909 Mr. R. Speight* also noticed these peculiar land-blocks, 
and states that their origin is difficult to explain in the light of our present knowledge. But he 
thinks " it is possible that the formation of the valleys was dependent in the first case on hnes of 
crust-fracture, that the arms grew along these lines, and, in spite of valley-forms being modified, the 
main directions were always j^reserved." 

The author's view is that the general orientation of the main valleys was determined by fractures 
that became worn by stream-action into valleys before the advent of the Pleistocene glaciation. 
During the glacial period the main valleys were deepened and modified by ice erosion. It was 
probably during the Late Pleistocene that the lateral " hanging-valleys " in the main fiords and 
mountain-valleys were formed. Sir James Hectorf was the first to furnish evidence of the former 
great extension of the glaciers of Otago. Writing of the hanging-valleys of Milford Sound, he says, 
" The lateral valleys join the main one at various elevations, but are all sharply cut oft' by the 
precipitous wall of the Sound, the erosion of which was no doubt continued by a great central 
glacier long after the subordinate and tributary glaciers had ceased to exist " (l.c., p. 460). 

Mr. E. C. Andrews and Dr. P. Marshall have suggested that the formation of the Sounds and 
valleys intersecting the peneplain lying west of the Waiau depression was solely the work of ice 
erosion. On this question the author finds himself in substantial agreement with Mr. Speight's view 
tliat tlie general orientation of the Sounds and arms was determined by crust-fractures. The 
Fiordland peneplain is a faulted block, bounded on the west coast and along the Waiau depression 
by powerful faults, the geological and topographical effects of which are conspicuous. The proof of 
the existence of the minor crust-fractures postulated by Mr. Speight and the author can only be 
furnished by a detailed geological survey of the Sounds area. 

The rounded and flowing contours of the mountains, the U-shaped valleys, cirques, truncated 
spurs, hanging- valleys, mountain tarns, and rock-basins are evidences of intense Pleistocene ice 
erosion. In the moulding and modifying of the land the ice has evidently removed an immense 
amount of material. In the Waiau, Manapouri, and Te Anau areas there are large accunmlations 
of morainic material ; but in the Sounds region, except at the entrance of Preservation Inlet and 
at Kisbee Bay (where there are large granite erratics), and in the lower end of the Cleddau and 
Arthur valleys (where there are small moraines), there is a conspicuous absence of ice-carried 
debris. This and the rounded contours of the headlands would suggest that the Pleistocene ice- 
sheet came down to the coast and discharged its rocky load on the floor of the sea. All the Sounds 
are shallower at the entrance than inside, and possibly this shoahng was caused by the accunmlation 
of submarine moraines before the final retreat of the ice began. 

Submergence of Peneplain and Formation of Coal-measures. 

During the Early Miocene the Otago-Southland peneplain became submerged by a slow 
progressive transgression of the sea, and was covered with a relativelv thin sheet of deltaic 
sediments. By the growth and decay of vegetation that established itself on the emergent banks 
these sediments were intercalated with seams of decomposing peaty matter that afterwards 
became transformed into coal. These basal sediments and their contained seams of brown coal 
constitute the well-known Miocene coal-measures of Otago and Southland. 

The subsidence of the land continued into the Middle and Upper Miocene, and in consequence 
of the deposition and encroachment of the sea the deltaic coal-bearing beds became covered with 
a great succession of marine sediments. 

The downward movement was arrested at the close of the Miocene, and early in the Pliocene 
there took place a rapid differential uplift. This upward, or positive, movement introduced 

*R. Speight: Notes on the Geology of the West Coast Sounds, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 42, pp. 255-67, 1910. 
tJ. Hector: Geological Expedition to the West Coast of Otago, Provincial Government Oazette, Diinediii, 5th 
November, 1863. 


jwwcrful orustal stresses, which found relief by the formation of a network of dislocations that 
disrupted not only the older rocks in which the pre-Mioceno peneplain had been carved, but also 
the covering- sheet o£ deltaic and marine strata. The ancient peneplain became uplifted in places 
as cuboidal blocks bounded by parallel faults, and in other places tilted as sloping blocks where 
l)(>undcd by dislocations on one side only. The uplift was faster along tlie main divide than 
elsewhere, with the result that the general slope of the broken j^eneplain was towards the 
south-east and south. 

Many of the uplifted blocks were separated by parallel faults, and, between some of these, 
slices of the Miocene coal-measures and associated marine strata were entangled, and thereby 
preserved from destruction. The Miocene strata lying on the surface of the ujjliftcd peneplain 
were only partially consolidated, and disappeared rapidly before the activities of subaerial and 
ice erosion in the Pliocene and Pleistocene periods. Besides the many small infaulted masses of 
coal-measures that occur among the block momitains, the only evidences of the former existence 
of the Miocene rocks on the surface of the pre-Miocene peneplain are tabular beds and isolated 
blocks of sarsen stone, or a thin veneer of fine quartzose drift. 


There is evidence that the Southland-Otago peneplain extended far beyond the limits of the 
provincial boundaries. The Kurow Range is the most northerly renmant in Otago. It is a 
well-preserved block mountain rmming north-west and south-east. On its northern side it is 
separated from Canterbury by the Waitaki depression, the floor of which is occupied by a faulted 
stri]) of Middle Tertiary (Oamaruian) strata. 

The momitain-ranges of Canterbury have been recognized by Mr. R. Sjjeight, M.Sc, F.G.S., 
as the residuals of an ancient peneplain that was, he thinks, probably a continuation of the Otago 
peneplain. The Canterbiu:y ranges generally possess narrow uneven crests, on which there now 
remains no evidence to prove that the Canterbury peneplain was at one time covered with a 
sheet of Tertiary strata. But the faulted blocks of Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary strata, in 
the Trelissick Basin and other parts of Canterbury, may be accepted as evidence that such a 
covering sheet of marginal marine sediments did formerly exist in that region. His own view 
and the views of other geologists as to the- existence of a post-Jurassic peneplain in the 
Canterbury area have been ably summarized by Mr. Speight* in a pajjer on " Tlie Intermontane 
Basins of Canterbury," and need not be recapitulated here. Generally, his view is succinctly 
expressed in the concluding paragraph, in which he says, " Indeed, it seems reasonable to 
suppose that after the first formation as a folded range, at the close of the Jurassic or the 
beginning of the Cretaceous period, they [the Southern Alps] were reduced to a peneplain — this 
would take place towards the close of the Cretaceous period — and that on this peneplain the 
Tertiary beds were laid down ; that subsequently they experienced vertical and perhaps 
differential uplift, with a certain amomit of folding and midoubted faulting." 

The author is in substantial agreement with Mr. Speight, but thinks that the littoral 
character of the sediments covering the peneplain would tend to show that the alpine chain was 
not completely suppressed by denudation, as he suggests. And, while agreeing that the 
peneplaining took place after the folding of the Trio-Jurassic rocks, the author is of the opinion 
that the existence of Upper Cretaceous strata resting on the folded Trio- Jurassic rocks, and 
underlying the Tertiary strata, is an evidence, as hereafter shown, that the peneplaining was 
completed not " towards the close of the Cretaceous period " but before the Cenomanian 
transgression of the sea began. 

In their memoir on the " Geology of the Buller-Mokihinui Subdivision," Mr. P. G. Morgan, M.A., 
Director of the Geological Survey, and Mr. J. A. Bartrum, M.Sc, have shown that the 
peneplaining of the whole or greater part of the alpine area was completed in pre-Tertiary 

*R. Speight: Trans. N.Z. Insl., vol. 47, pp. ,33(i-5:}, 191.5. In 1910 Mr. Speight described Mount Arrowsmitli as 
a dissected peneplain (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 43, p. 319, 1911). 



times.* Faither north the Wainihinihi peneplain, apparently a continuation of the Mikonui 
peneplain, has been described by Dr. .J. M. Boll, Ph.D., and Mr. Colin Fraser, M.Sc, as the 
result of Middle Tertiary peneplaining.f 

Mr. Morgan recognized that the alpine folding took place during the Early Cretaceous. In 
the Upper Cretaceous there was a general subsidence, of which he says no historical remains are 
known to have survived on the west side of the main divide. This destruction of the Upper 
Cretaceous sediments was a consequence of the uplift and denudation that took place at the 
close of the Cretaceous or early in the Eocene. 

The Eocene uphft described by Mr. Morgan {Geol. Bull. No. 6 (N.S.), 1908, p. 37) appears to 
have been coeval with the uplift that witnessed the almost complete destruction of the Upper 
Cretaceous sediments covering the post-Jurassic peneplain in the Canterbury and Otago areas. 

In their discussion of the ])robable age of the Wainihinihi peneplain. Dr. Bell and Mr. Colin 
Fraser suggest that perhaps this great physiographic feature may be the northern continuation 
of the ancient Fiordland peneplain mentioned by Mr. E. C. Andrews.J 

Mr. E. J. H. Webb, B.E.,§ believes that the Palaeozoic Aorere Series was worn down by 
denudation practically to base-level, and that on this peneplained surface there was deposited 
an Early Tertiary succession of sediments that at one time covered the entire area of the 
Mount Radiant Subdivision. 

In an admirable thesis " On the Genesis of the Surface Forms and Present Drainage-systems 
of West Nelson " Dr. Henderson|| recognizes the Whakamarama, Pikikiruna, Mount Arthur, Lyell, 
Murchison, Victoria, and Paparoa mountain-ranges as uplifted deeply dissected blocks, that are 
the remains of a great peneplain which extended from the Wainihinihi peneplain northwards to 
north Nelson. He concludes that the finely preserved block mountams of Otago first described 
by Professor Park are the remains of the Otago peneplain, which is merely the southern continua- 
tion of the alpine ])eneplain of Canterbury and Westland.^ 

Writing in 1915 of " Former Peneplains in the Buller-Mokihinui Country," Mr. Morgan and 
Mr. Bartrum express the opinion that " the Westport highlands, and with them probably the 
greater part of central and western Nelson, furnish an excellent example of what has been termed 
a fossil peneplain."* 

In their memoir on " The Geology of the Dun Mountain Subdivision, Nelson," Dr. J. M. Bell, 
Mr. E. de C. Clarke, and Dr. P. Marshall** propound the view that " the mountainous hinterland 
IS thought to form part of that old faulted peneplain — representing a former approximation of the 
land to sea-level — which covers so much of the northern part of the South Island." 

The axial chains of the North Island are, for the most part, composed of folded argillites and 
gre)rwackes of Trio- Jurassic age. The axes of the main folds run north-east and south-west. 
A review of the existing physiograj)hic features and distribution of the Tertiary marine strata 
appears to indicate that the present mountain-ridges represent uplifted remnants of an ancient 
peneplained surface that at one time extended from north Auckland to Wellington, and westward 
to Nelson. 

In a discussion of the origin of the surface forms of the ridges surrounding Wellington Harbour, 
Dr. J. M. Bell|t expresses the opinion that the crests of all these ridges represent various levels 
of an old peneplained surface. 

* P. G. Morgan and J. A. Baktrum : Geol. Bull No. 17 (N.S.J, p. 49, 1915. 

t J. M. Bell and Colin Fraser: Geol. Bull. No. 1 (N.S.), p. 26, 1906. 

\ E. C. Andrews : The Ice-flood Hypothesis of the New Zealand Sound- basins, Jcnimal of Geology, vol. 14, No. 1, 

§E. J. Herbert Webb: The Geology of the Mount Radiant Subdivision, Westport Division, Geol. Bull. No. 11 
(N.S.), pp. 8 and 9. 1910. 

||J. Henderson : Trans. N.Z. livil., vol. 43, pp. 309-11, 1911. See also Bell, Webb, Clarke : Geol. Bull. No. 3 
(N.S.), p. 24, 1907. 

If J. Henderson : loc. cit., pp. 310-11. J. Park : Geol. Bull. Nos. 2 and 5 (N.S.), 1906 and 1908. And J. Park : 
Geology of New Zealand, pp. 10, 11, 144, 1910. 

** Geol. Bull. No. 12 (N.S.), pp. 9 and 10, 1911. 

tt J. M. Bell : The Physiography of Wellington Harbour, Trans. N.Z. Inst, vol. 42, p. 53.5, 1910. 

2— Geol. Bull. No. 23. 


As far back as 1886 Professor Park* showed that newer Miocene strata rise from near sea- 
level to a height of 3,500 ft. on the western slopes of the Ruahine Range, and to the same 
height on the southern slopes of the Kaimanawa Range. His view then was that the Tertiary 
strata rested on a wave-cut platform ; but in conformity with the new conceptions as to the evolu- 
tion of surface forms he now thinks that deposition may have taken place on a peneplained surface 
over which the sea slowly transgressed. But in this area, as doubtless also in the South Island, 
the advancing sea would truncate obstructing ridges and spread the material in the adjoining 
hollows, thereby forming the emergent coastal marshes on which the vegetation of the Early Miocene 
coals flourished before final submergence took place. 

The even height of the crest of the ridges of the Trio-Jurassic divide in the East Cape area, 
as seen between Motu and Opotiki, and the faulted blocks of Middle Tertiary strata that occur 
on the flanks of the divide itself suggest the view that the Ruahine peneplain reached as far north 
as East Cape. According to our present knowledge the great post- Jurassic peneplain extended from 
one end of New Zealand to the other, and completely dominated the Early Cretaceous landscape ; 
afterwards it formed a prepared platform for the deposition of the later Cretaceous and Tertiary 
sediments. It possibly exercised a softening effect on the climate of these times. As a distinctive 
name and to facilitate reference it has been called Tahora.f 

The character of the Cretaceous and Tertiary sediments proves that the great Tahoran pene- 
plain was everywhere marginal to the highlands of the axial divide, the trend of which had already 
been determined by the Early Cretaceous diastrophic folding. And if we judge the past by existing 
geographical conditions we may not be far wrong in believing that the coasts of these ancient 
highlands were deeply embayed, and in places indented with sounds. 

In Otago and Canterbury the main divide at the time of the Cenomanian transgression of 
the sea was probably a more or less continuous chain ; but in Nelson the Oamaruian limestone 
overlaps the coal-measures, and rests either on or close to the Palseozic basement rocks, which 
would tend to show that in this regioa there existed a chain of islands with relatively steep slopes. 

The existence of Cretaceous and Tertiary strata at the Chatham Islands and at Campbell 
Island would suggest that the ancient Tahoran peneplain extended far to the east and south of 
New Zealand's present geographical limits. 


Evidence will be adduced to show that the reduction of the peneplain to a base-level near 
sea-level took place after the folding of the Jurassic system and before the deposition of the 
Upper Cretaceous strata. 

To discover the age of the ancient peneplain it will be necessary to make a critical examination 
of the rocks that are known to be concerned in its structure. In western Southland and Fiordland 
the peneplain was eroded in the dioritic complex of Late Palaeozoic age, and in the gneisses and 
crystalline schists of the ancient Manapouri System ; in south-west Southland, in highly tilted 
Ordovician slates ; east of the present Waiau Valley, in argillites, greywackes, and aphanite breccias 
of Permo-Carboniferous age ; in central Southland, in folded Trio-Jurassic strata ; in western Otago, 
in the tilted and contorted mica-schists of the PaUeozoic Mam'ototian System ; in central Otago, in 
Maniototian mica-schists that over a wide area are horizontal or incUned at very low angles, 
probably the result of recumbent folding ; in southern and eastern Otago, in the semi-meta- 
morphic Kakanuian rocks that appear to follow the Maniototian conformably ; in northern Otago, 
in Kakanuian rocks and overlying argillites and greywackes of the Trio-Jurassic Hokonuian 
System. These latter extend into Canterbury, and compose the greater part of the Canterbury 

Similarly in Nelson we find folded Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Permo-Carboniferous, and 
Trio-Jurassic rocks taking part in the structure of the ancient peneplain. 

* J. Park : On the Geology of the Western Part of Wellington Provincial District and Part of Taranaki, Rep. oj 
Ge-ol. Explor. durinq 1886-87, pp. 24-73, with map. 
■j" Tahora= Maori for wide maritime plains. 


In the North Island the only rocks known to be concerned in the formation of the ancient 
peneplain are the folded Trio-Jurassic argillites and gre)rwackes that compose the main axial 
chains. No rocks younger than Jurassic take part in the structure of the land surface that 
became worn down into the great peneplain. Clearly, the base-levelling took place after the 
elevation and folding of the youngest Jurassic strata represented in New Zealand. The base- 
levelUng was post- Jurassic, and, as will now be shown, must have taken place in the early 
half of the Cretaceous, before the world-wide Cenomanian transgression of the sea began. 

Throughout New Zealand the Oamaruian Middle Tertiary strata occur as a marginal sheet 
flanking and surrounding the great axial chains. Almost every^vhere these strata rest directly 
on folded and peneplained Jurassic or older rocks. But in some small areas strata that are 
known to be of Upper Cretaceous age are interposed between the peneplained older rocks and 
the Oamaruian, notably in the Trehssick Basin, Waipara and Weka Pass district, in the 
Clarence Valley, east coast of Wellington and Hawke's Bay, in Poverty Bay, and perhaps in 
north Auckland. From this it would appear that the peneplaining of the ancient Tahora took 
place during the early half of the Cretaceous and before the Cenomanian transgression of the 
sea began. 

At the close of the Danian a general upUft took place, during which the weak Cretaceous 
beds were removed by denudation from the greater part of the peneplained Tahoran surface. 
Throughout the Miocene period there was progressive subsidence, during which Oamaruian sediments 
were laid down on the peneplained surface from which the Cretaceous strata had but recently been 
removed, and also on the remnants of the Cretaceous strata that had escaped destruction. 

Where the Oamaruian System rests on Jurassic or older rocks its basement beds are 
conglomerates composed of material of local origin, but where it rests on Cretaceous strata basal 
conglomerates are absent. This doubtless arose from the circumstance that the rocks of the 
older systems were for the most part highly indurattid, while the Cretaceous strata were soft 
or incoherent, and therefore incapable of providing resistant material for the formation of 
conglomerates. In consequence of these conditions the basal conglomerates are absent, or 
represented by clayc}^ and sandy beds, wherever the Oamaruian rests on Cretaceous strata. 

The events that led to the survival of patches of the Cretaceous strata offer scope for much 
interesting speculation. But there are two significant facts that, rightly interpreted, may assist 
us to a conclusion possibly not far from the truth. Wherever the Oamaruian rests on the 
Cretaceous strata, notwithstanding the sharply defined palaeontological break, the jjhysical uncon- 
formity between them is usually so small as to be almost indistinguishable. This is one 
outstanding fact ; the other is that at the close of the Miocene the ancient peneplain and its 
covering pile of strata became broken u{) into blocks by many powerful faults. 

The inference to be drawn from these conditions is that faulting began after the deposition 
and elevation of the Cretaceous strata, engulfing blocks of them in trough-like depressions in 
the ancient peneplain, where they were protected from destruction during the Eocene uplift. 
When subsidence began at the close of the Eocene the Oamaruian sediments were spread over 
both the surface of the uncovered peneplain and the down-faulted strips of Cretaceous strata. 
The deposition of the clayey and sandy Miocene sediments over the horizontal and little-worn 
Cretaceous strata has given a deceptive appearance of stratigraphical conformity that has per- 
plexed many New Zealand geologists. 

Throughout the Miocene there was a progressive downward crustal movement ; and the 
character of the sediments shows that the rate of subsidence just kept pace with the rate of 
deposition. Apart from this subsidence, which may have been due to crustal sag arising from 
the shifting of material from tlie main axial chain to the floor of the adjacent seas, there was a 
cessation of all violent movement ; but at the close of the Miocene there began a period of 
intense diastrophic disturbance which found expression in an uplift that was differential, being 
faster along the axial chain than elsewhere. In consequence of this unequal uplift, crustal adjust- 
ment was mainly effected by dislocation and warping. The major dislocations followed the planes 
of the Eocene faults, with the result that strips of Cretaceous and Miocene strata occur together 


in the montane basins. In some places the later faulting tilted and deformed these strata, as 
in the Trelissick Basin and in the Waipara district. 


The elongated form of the great lakes Ipng in the upper part of its basin led New Zealand 
o-eologists at an early date to speculate on the origin of the Waiau trough-hke valley. Though 
unable to furnish evidence of crustal dislocation in this region, Hutton as far back as 1876 
expressed the opinion that the Waiau Valley might possibly be a fault-trough {Geology of Otago 
and Southland). In his fault-map of New Zealand, pubhshed by the Geological Survey in 1892, 
McKay showed a great fault along the course of the Waiau Valley, to the north passing through 
Lake Te Anau. As McKay had never visited the Waiau or Te Anau country, we may assume 
that in placing the Waiau fault where he did he was in some measure influenced by Hutton's 
opinion. But there were other conceptions germinating in McKay's mind. At this time he was 
profoundly influenced by the views of Powell and other American geologists as to the topo- 
graphical effects of faulting as exhibited in the Great Western Basin ; and, following out this 
new conception, he concluded that all the dominant physical features of New Zealand were the 
result of crustal fracturing and displacement, a view generally endorsed by the author (1910) and 
by Dr. C. A. Cotton (1916). 

The hypothetical views of Hutton and McKay as to the origin of the Waiau Valley are fully 
supported by the facts as recorded during the progress of the present survey. 

The Waiau trough, including the basins of Lake Manapouri and Lake Te Anau, is bounded 
by two parallel faults, one to the east running along the foot of the Takitimu Mountains, the 
other to the west skirting the mountains of the main divide. 

To the north of Lake Te Anau the faults converge and traverse the Clinton River diorites, 
but to the south of this lake the fault-trough hes between the Maitai Formation to the east and 
the intrusive series to the west. 

The general trend of the Waiau trough is north and south. From the north end of Lake 
Te Anau to the sea the floor of the valley is occupied by a down-faulted strip of the Oamaruian 
Tertiary strata. 

The effects of faulting are well seen near the head of Lake Te Anau (fig. 3), at Blackmount, 
at Monowai River, and between Blue Cliff and Port Craig. Almost everywhere along the lower 
flanks of the Takitimu Mountains the Tertiary coal-measures are down-faulted and generally much 


The Waiau fault-system is intersected by many transverse faults. Between two of these hes 
the strip of coal-bearing strata that extends from the Waiau Valley to Nightcaps. This down- 
faulted strip occupies the depression separating Longwood Range from the Takitimu Mountains. 
The Ohai trough is itself intersected by the Wairaki step-faults that run nearly parallel with the 
great Waiau fault. The displacement of these ranges from 10 ft. to 50 ft., and has broken the 
Ohai coalfield into many small blocks. 

Along the lower slope of Twinlaw the coal-measures are faulted and tilted towards the south. 
Generally the boundary of the Tertiary strata along the south side of the Wairio-Ohai coalfield 
coincides with the course of the Twinlaw fault. 

To the north-east the Quested fault forms the north-east boundary of the Ohai-Nightcaps 
coalfield. This fault can be traced from the Ohai school to Quested's, and from there to the 
eastern boundary of the Nightcaps coal-measures. 

To the east the Nightcaps coal-area is bounded by a fault that runs along the foot of the 
ridge known as Ritchie's. The coal dips towards the east, and is cut off on reaching the fault. 

In the Waiau Valley the Middle Tertiary strata are tilted by transverse faults at Digger's 
HiU, and between Ligar Creek and Lake Monowai. 


It may be surmised that the great fiord-like arms of Lake Manapouri and of Lake Te Anati 
follow the course of 2)owerful faults ; but it is difficult to obtain structural evidence in support 
of this view, as the country rocks everywhere to the west of the lakes are massive diorites. It 
is certain, however, that the arms and the canons that extend beyond them followed definite 
zones of weakness. As the dioritic rocks are fairly homogenous and but little altered, it may 
be postulated that the process which brought about the initial weakness was faulting accompanied 
by rock-shattering. 

It has been claimed by some writers that the arms and canons were excavated by the 
Pleistocene glaciers. There is no evidence in supjwrt of this view ; but even if true it is 
certain that the glaciers would select the paths where the rocks were shattered, and therefore 
offered the least resistance. 


On the flat and hummocky ice-worn summit of the Livingstone Mountains, between Lake 
Gunn, near the source of the Eglinton River, and the upper Greenstone Valley, in a distance of 
three miles, there are several remarkable rents running parallel witli the general north-south trend 
of the range. These vents are open chasms traversing the grass-covered lands. They lie nearer 
the Greenstone than the Eglinton edge of the mountain-wall. 

The largest rent is over 200 yards long and 50 ft. deep ; and ranges from a few yards to 
10 yards wide at the top. 

The rocks composing the range arc greywackes and pale-green fissile argillites, interbedded 
with lenses of hmestone and intruded by numerous small dykes of diorite. The dip of the sedi- 
mentary rocks is towards the west. 

The rents seem to be of comparatively recent formation. They were certainly formed since 
the retreat of the Pleistocene ice-sheet. 

Their origin is obscure. Possibly they may be earthquake rents, following ancient fault- 
planes, or gashes formed by the sagging or creep of the precipitous mountain-walls towards the 
profound Greenstone canon. 




Major Diastrophic Movements and Mountain- 
building Periods . . . . . . . . 22 

Some Geographical Relationships of New Zea- 
land .. .. .. .. ..24 

Outline of Geological History 
The Story of the Rocks . . 
The Succession of Life 

Classification of Rock Formations 



The views of Dr. von Hochstetter, Captain Hutton, Mr. McKay, and Professor E. Suess 
as to the periods and directions of folding and land-movements that have affected the South 
Island have been ably reviewed by Mr. P. G. Morgan,* Director of the Geological Survey, in 
his memoir on the " Geology of the Mikonui Subdivision, North Westland," and need not be 
recapitulated here at any great length. 

Captain Huttonf postulated a Middle Devonian folding, parallel to the existing main 
mountain-axis but some distance to the west of it. This movement was, he believed, followed 
by a Permian (probably) elevation and rock-folding along the same axis. In the Jurassic a 
third folding took place, resulting in the formation of the Alps, which were never again to be 
wholly submerged. A Uttle before the Tertiary era, folding, accompanied by elevation, once 
more took place, giving the last touch to the internal structure of the mountains. That is, 
Captain Hutton recognized three periods of major diastrophic N.E.-S.W. movement, and one 
minor movement, the last in the Tertiary era. He regarded the Alps as the eastern half of 
a huge geanticlinal, the western half of which had been removed by denudation. 

Much new information as to the structure and age of the rock formations has been 
collected since Captain Hutton wrote in 1899, and his views now require to be modified to 
bring them into harmony with our present knowledge. He failed to recognize the diastrophic 
character of the N.W.-S.E. folding of the Trio- Jurassic and older formations of Southland 
and Otago. 

Professor Suess,J relying mainly on the geological literature furnished him by Sir Juhus 
von Haast, F.R.S., and Professor Park, recognized two major directions of strike and folding 
that encountered one another almost at right angles — namely, the N.E.-S.W. folding along the 
axial chains of both Islands, and a N.W.-S.E. folding in Otago and Southland. He noted 
that the Trio-Jurassic formations were involved in both systems of folding, and stated that 
" the knowledge we have acquired in other parts of the earth lead us to conclude that in 
this region two independent unilateral chains meet in syntaxis " {I.e., p. 144). He also 
suggested that the isolated patches of older rocks that occur between the East Cape and north 
Auckland were the summit of a north-west sunken range. 

Mr. McKay§ always maintained that the present Alps did not exist as a mountain-chain 
before the Miocene. 

Mr. Morganjj recognized a N.-S. and possibly N.W.-S.E. folding in the Permian; a N.W.-S.E. 
Late Jurassic folding over the present alpine area and much of Canterbury and Otago ; and a 
folding along the present alpine chain at the end of the Cretaceous or in the Early Eocene. 

*P. G. Morgan: Oeol. Bull. No. 6 (N.8.), pp. 35-37, 1908. 
fF. W. Hutton: Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 32, pp. 159-83, 1800. 
X Edward Suess : The Face of the Earth (English translation), vol. 2, p. 144, 1906. 
§ A. McKay : Rep. Geol. Expl. during ISfJO-fil, vol. 21, 1892 ; and Mines Hep., C.-3, p. 181, 1893. 
li P. G. Morgan : The Geology of Mikonui Subdivision, Geol. Bull No. 6 (N.S.), p. 37, 1908; and Geol. Bull. No. 17 
(N.3.), p. 69, 1915. 


In the structure of the principal chains Professor Park recognizes five major diastrophic 
movements :■ — 

(1.) The Tuhuan,* a Devonian N.E.-S.W. folding, accompanied by granitic intrusions. 
(2.) The Atawhenuan,f a Late Permian N.-S. folding, accompanied by dioritic intrusions. 
(3.) The Hokonuian, an Early Cretaceous N.W.-S.E. folding. 
(4.) The Rangitatan, an Early Cretaceous N.E.-S.W. alpine folding, parallel with the 

Tuhuan ; accompanied by ultra-basic intrusions. Thrust probably from east. 
(5.) The Ruahine (Pliocene) differential uplift that elevated New Zealand after the 
Oamaruian submergence. 

The Hokonuian and Rangitatan took place in syntaxis. The Ruahine was not a folding 
movement, but a simple uplift along the general axis of the Islands. 

The Tuhuan (or Devonian) N.E.-S.W. folding was accompanied by vast granitic intrusions. 
This movement affected the Silurian, Ordovician, and older rocks of Westland and Nelson, 
and laid the foundation on which the Rangitatan alpine folds were afterwards reared. 

The Atawhenuan (or Permian) N.-S. folding involved the Manapouri gneisses and schists 
in Fiordland and the Kakanuian (Wangapekan) and Maitai rocks north of the HoUyford (Park). 
It was accompanied by the intrusion of the CUnton River diorites, diorite-gneisses, gabbros, 
and norites of Fiordland, Longwood Range, Bluff, and Stewart Island. 

The Hokonuian was an Early Cretaceous N.W.-S.E. movement that involved the Lower 
Ordovician (or Upper Cambrian) slates and mica-schists of Preservation Inlet (McKay) ; the 
Trio-Jurassic rocks of the Hokonui Mountains, Southland (Hutton) ; the mica-schists of central 
and western Otago (Park) ; the Trio-Jurassic argillites and schists of north Otago (Park) ; the 
Pikikiruna and older Palaeozoic rocks of north Nelson, J Mount Radiant,§ and Paparoa Range ;|| 
the Permo-Carboniferous and Triassic rocks of Nelson (Park). 

The Rangitatan was an Early Cretaceous N.E.-S.W. movement that folded the Trio- 
Jurassic rocks forming the axial chains in both Islands. It was evidently a revival of the 
Devonian folding, and was accompanied by extrusions of ultra-basic magmas. 

The Ruahine (Pliocene) movement elevated the present chains after the Oamaruian (Miocene) 
submergence. It was differential, and accompanied by profound faulting, and by vulcanicity 
and seismic disturbance which have continued, with intervals of rest, up till the present day. 

The N.E.-S.W. Rangitatan folding movements laid the framework and detennined the 
structure and direction of the axial chains of both Islands. 

The N.W.-S.E. Hokonuian movement folded and elevated the Hokonuis in Southland, and 
the chains of western Otago and Nelson. These chains meet the N.E.-S.W. folding in 
syntaxis, run transversely to the present axial chains, and end abruptly at the coast. 

The Ruahine (Phocene) uplift was not orogenic, but epeirogenic, and, being differential, 
was accompanied by profound faulting. In the trough-faults, rift-valleys, and montane basins 
formed during this movement strips of Cretaceous and Tertiary strata became deeply involved. 
In no case do rocks of post-Jurassic age take part in the mountain-making folds. The Phocene 
uphft was accompanied by intense volcanic activity along the east coast of the South Island, 
and generally throughout the North Island. Mount Egmont, Ruapehu, Ngauruhoe, and other 
great volcanoes in the middle of the North Island date back to the Pliocene ; and the vulcanicity 
which started them has continued, with periods of quietude, up till the present day. Seismic 
movements, of a wider range than those directly connected with volcanic outbursts, have 
accompanied the vulcanicity. They are traceable to the jolts arising from crustal adjustments 
along powerful faults that were formed, or rejuvenated, by the Pliocene uplift. Great faults 
are of slow growth. 

* Tuhuan was the name given by Dr. J. M. Bell and Mr. C. Fra.3er to the granite complex of north We.stland. 
t Atawhenua is the Maori name of the Sounds country of south-west Southland = Land of the shadows, or 

J J. Park : On tlie Geology of Collingwood County, Ttej). Geol. Expl. durin,/ 1S88-S9, No. 20, p. 228, 1890. 
§E. J. H. Webb: The Geology of Mount Ridiant Subdivision, (Icol. Bull. K'o. 11 (N.S.), p. 9, 1910. 
I] P. G. Mc.rcan: The Geology of Greymouth Subdivision, Gcol. Bull. No. 13 (X.S.), p. 50, 1911. 


Th(> Rangitatan folding gave New Zealand two parallel systems of folded chains — the South 
Island main divide, which terminates abruptly to the north of Cook Strait, and the Kaikoura 
chains, which end at Cook Strait. The latter are represented in the North Island by the 
geologically similar Tararua and Ruahine ranges ; but, except the Kaimanawa Range, there is 
no highland in the north in the line of the South Island main divide. In 1892, boulders of 
granite and gneiss were discovered by Professor Park* in a conglomerate at the base of the 
Middle Tertiary Oamaruian beds of the upper Waipa, east of Kawhia. Since that date gneissic 
plutonic rocks have been discovered in conglomerates in the gorge of the Waipaoa River, 
Povertv Bay (Sollas and McKay, 1906) ; in the Whangaroa district (Bell and Clarke, 1909) ; in 
the Hautotara Mountains of south-east Wellington (Sollas and McKay, 1906) ; at Albany, Lucas 
Creek, Waitemata Harbour (Bartrum, 1920) ; and Great Barrier Island (Bartrum, 1920). f 

Granite and crystalline metamorphic rocks are not known in place in the whole of the Nort.h 
Island. Professor Suess believed that their presence as boulders in the Waipa beds supported 
the view which postulated that the South Island alpine chain at one time extended to the 
north, forming the backbone of the North Island. He suggested J that the northern prolongation 
of the Alps had sunk beneath the surface. This subsidence, he thought, may have caused the 
volcanic outbursts, which have since buried the highest summits of the sunken Alps. 

The Kaimanawa Range lies in the prolongation of the main divide of the South Island. 
This range and the isolated outcrops of Trio-Jurassic rock at the sources of the Wanganui, 
Mokau, and Waipa rivers may be remnants of the sunken axial chain in the north. 

The north-west peninsula of the North Island is a feature that departs abruptly from the 
N.E.-S.W. course of the axial Ruahine Range. It consists of a chain of isolated outcrops of 
Trio-Jurassic rocks, generally of low relief and covered with a broken sheet of Middle Tertiary 
strata. On the highly denuded surface of these strata there lies a pile of andesitic and rhyolitic 
lavas, tuffs, and breccias, the former traversed by gold-bearing veins. 

The Mesozoic basement rocks strike towards the north, with deviations to the north-west, 
and more rarely to the north-east. The northerly strike corresponds with the direction of the 
Atawhenuan folding of the ancient Pateozoic rocks of Southland, western Otago, and north 
Nelson, and lies athwart the trend of the Rangitatan folding. 

The northerly strike of the Trio-Jurassic rocks in the north-west peninsula may have arisen 
from a revival of the N.-S. Atawhenuan folding in syntaxis with the Early Cretaceous Rangitatan 
folding along the axial chain of the North Island. The N.W.-S.E. trend of the submerged chain 
forming the framework of the north-west peninsula was determined by block-faulting during the 
Ruahine (Pliocene) uphft, the faulting being accompanied by intense volcanic activity along the 
main fault-lines. 


When viewed as a part of the great world landscape New Zealand appears as a wrinkle 
on the surface of the Hthosphere ; but, though geographically isolated, it must bear a definite 
relationship to the adjacent parts of the earth's surface, whether these be ocean deeps or dry 
land. Though so isolated. New Zealand contains within its narrow borders representatives of 
most of the Palaeozoic, Mesozoic, and Cainozoic formations. Moreover, its structure is that 
usually associated with areas of continental dimensions ; and for that reason it is often spoken 
of as an island of the continental type. It is a miniature continent ; and the occurrence in 
its framework of tliinogcnic§ rocks, ranging from the earliest geological epochs to the present 
day, is undeniable evidence that it stands on a subcrustal foundation of great stabiUty. 

Alternating elevation and submergence of its coasts have succeeded one another from the 
earUest ages. During periods of elevation its borders have been enlarged ; during periods of 

* J. Park: Trans. N.Z. Inst, vol. 25, pp. 353-62, 1893. 

t J. A. Bartrum : Trans. N.Z. Inst, vol. 52, pp. 422-30, 1920. 

t Edward Suess: The Face of the Earth (English translation), vol. 2, p. 146, 1906; and vol. 4, p. 318, 1909. 

§ Greek, this, thinos = shore or shallow- water sediments. 


submergence, diminished ; but throughout all the vicissitudes of geological happening, including 
the making and foundering of continents elsewhere, the New Zealand area has maintained its 
identity as a resistant segment of the earth's crust. 

This remarkable persistency lends powerful support to the doctrine that maintains the 
permanency of the great oceanic basins and continents. But the subject is beset with diffi- 
culties ; and, though the general thesis is certainly true, its proof is well-nigh impossible. The 
suggestion of Harker and other writers that two types of continental tectonics can be traced — 
the Pacific and Atlantic, each dominated by a distinctive type of effusive magma, the calcic 
and alkahc — can no longer be entertained. 

It has been established that in certain regions volcanic activity and seismic disturbance 
are restricted to certain linear or curvilinear lines, or zones, that follow the course of powerful 
crustal fractures. But crustal fracturing and faulting are merely an expression of geotectonic 
folding ; hence in this chain of events we may have (1) folding, (2) fracturing and faulting, 
(3) vulcanicity and seismic disturbance. 

Taking this thesis as a starting-point, Professor Suess,* in a masterly review of the wider 
relationships of the land areas of the South Pacific, attempts to define the course of the major 
crustal folds in which New Zealand has been involved in later Tertiary times. He prefaces 
his view by a restatement of Dana's observations that the elongated oceanic depressions, or 
deeps, lie in front of the more recent folded ranges. He agrees with Supan that these 
depressions, or fore-troughs, are connected with folding, and supports the hypothesis that 
" these depressions mark the subsidence of the fore-land beneath the recent folds " (I.e., p. 295). 
Farther on he says, " With one or two exceptions, all marine abysses which sink below a 
de[)th of 7,000 metres [about 4,000 fathoms] are fore-deeps in a tectonic sense, and indicate 
the subsidence of the fore-land beneath the folded mountains." 

To be consistent with Dana's hypothesis of mountain-building the word " beneath " should 
be replaced by the words '" in front of." It is difficult to understand how the fore-land could 
sink beneath the recent folds, except by overloading and seaward creep of the mountain-folds 
as postulated by Dana. It appears more probable that the oceanic deeps are sunken parts 
of the crust, and that the mountain-chains represent the parts where the compressive stresses 
set up by the sinking of the troughs found relief by folding and fracturing, accompanied by 
magmatic effusions. 

In his review of the South Pacific, Professor Suess (I.e., p. 311 et seq.) recognizes 
three main zones, or arcs, of folding, fracturing, and vulcanicity. The first Australian arc 
extends from New Ireland to Hunter Island. This long chain includes as its principal 
members New Ireland, the Solomon and Santa Cruz islands, and the New Hebrides, all of 
which possess many characters in common. This line is characterized by one direction of 
strike, forming an arc sUghtly convex to the north-east. The second Australian arc includes 
the Fiji Islands, which lie between the volcanic fines of the New Hebrides and Tonga. The 
third Australian arc includes as its principal members the Tonga and Kermadec Islands and 
the Rualiine Range of New Zealand. f 


As a consequence of the large amount of palaeontological work and field research 
carried out during the past quarter of a century, the major events in the geological history 
of New Zealand in the Cainozoic epoch are now well known. But our knowledge of the 
Paleeozoic and Mesozoic epochs is still fragmentary and meagre. Whole chapters are 
missing ; and the few broken pages that have been found are blurred and difficult to 
piece together in a connected story. 

* E. StiESS : The Face of the Earth (Encrlish translation), vol. 4, pp. 295-318, 1909. 
t E. Sdess : I.e., vol. 2, p. 146, 190(5 ; and vol. 4, p. .318 et seq. 


The Story of the Rocks. 

From a study of its rock-structure we know that New Zealand is merely an elongated 
residual of a greater land now submerged below the sea. It is a crustal block standing on 
a platform of ancient crystalline rocks, and bounded to the east and west by powerful 
faults. We have evidence of rock-folding and mountain -building in many different epochs, 
of fracturing and igneous intrusion, of the deposition of sediments along many ancient 
strands of which there is now no trace, of terrestrial and marine forms of life that flourished 
for a time and disappeared, and of other forms related, at first distantly and later more 
nearly, to the Life of the present day. 

When we examine the organic remains embedded in the strata forming the framework 
of the country we discover that the sea, at more than one epoch, spread over the areas now 
occupied by the present mountain-chains. 

The oldest rooks in New Zealand are certain gneisses, schists, and limestones that extend 
from south-west Southland to Nelson, along the west side of the main axial chain. They 
comprise in part the Manapouri System of Captain Hutton in western Southland, the Arahura 
Series of Dr. Bell, Mr. Fraser, and Mr. Morgan in Westland, the Pikikiruna Series of Professor 
Park in north Nelson, and the mica-schists of central and eastern Otago. These rocks are 
highly metamorphosed, and all traces of organic remains have been completely obliterated. 

The chlorite-schists and hornblende-schists are evidently altered igneous rocks, but the 
associated slates, mica-schists, phyllites, and limestones are of sedimentary origin. The 
origin of the gneisses is not so clear ; these rocks occur in places as massive bands of 
great width, and in other places are intercalated with thin bands of mica-schist and lime- 
stone ; they may be in part igneous and in part clastic. 

The phyllites and mica-schists were originally composed of argillaceous and sandy 
material derived from the denudation of an ancient land composed mainly of granite and 
gneiss. Of this land nothing is known except that it extended to the north-east. There 
is nothing to tell us whether it lay towards the Antarctic or the Pacific. 

In Fiordland the crystalline metamorphic rocks dip towards the west, and in Westland 
towards the east. The structure is that of a great anticlinal, the axis of which runs in 
the south towards the north, and in Westland towards the north-east. 

After an interval of xmknown duration certain argillaceous and arenaceous sediments 
were laid dowTi on the floor of the sea laving the shores of the pre-Ordovician land. In 
process of time these sediments became indurated and altered into argiUites, slates, quartzites, 
and mica-schist. 

The slaty rocks are usually graphitic, and contain the oldest recognizable organic remains 
known in New Zealand. At Preservation Inlet, and at the Slaty River in north Nelson, they 
contain graptolites that have been identified as belonging to the Ordovician epoch. In the 
north the Ordovician rocks are followed by' fossiliferous Silurian strata that were apparently 
laid down along the shore of the pre-Ordovician continent. 

Though considerably modified by subaerial denudation and rock-folding, there is good 
ground for the belief that the Archaean continent which provided the detritus for the forma- 
tion of the Dusky Sound crystalline schists also furnished the sediments for the later Ordovician, 
Silurian, Permo-Carboniferous, and Trio-Jurassic formations. 

So far as known, rocks of Devonian and Early Carboniferous age are unrepresented in 
New Zealand. From this we gather that during this great hiatus the New Zealand area was 
dry land, probably forming an extension of the Archaean continent which furnished the sedi- 
ments of the Silurian and older formations. 

Late in the Carboniferous there began a downward movement, with a consequent 
transgression of the sea, on the floor of which clayey, sandy, and calcareous deposits were 
laid down. These deposits constitute what is now called the Maitai Formation of Permo- 
Carboniferous age, and they were laid down marginal to the ancient continent. 


After the deposition of the Maitai Formation there was a period of intense folding, 
accompanied by the intrusion of dioritic and granitic magmas along a line varying from 
N.-S. to N.E.-S.W. The date of these intrusions was certainly pre-Triassic, and later than 

The Trio-Jurassic is represented by a tremendous pile of deltaic and marine strata, 
which are intercalated with beds of coarse granitic conglomerate in both Islands. The 
scarcity of organic remains in this great formation would tend to suggest that the sediments 
of which it is composed were transported to the sea by large rivers draining a land of 
continental dimensions. This ancient Mesozoic continent may have been a remnant of the 
Pala>ozoic Gondwanaland of the South Pacific. If this view be sustained we may reason- 
ably conclude that the lands wliich provided the sediments of the Pala-ozoic formations of 
New Zealand lay towards the north, and not towards the Antarctic. 

In the Early Cretaceous the New Zealand area was crumpled by two crustal movements, 
which ridged up the Jura.ssic aiid older strata in two systems of mountain-building folds — 
one a N.E.-S.W. folding parallel with the axis of the main chain, the other a N.W.-S.E. 
folding. Tlie N.E.-S.W. definitely determined the direction of the axial chains, and appears 
to have been a revival of the Late Palaeozoic diastrophic; movement. It dominated the 
N.W.-S.E. folding, and was accompanied by the extrusion of ultra-basic magmas in north- 
west Otago, Nelson, and north Auckland. 

The Early Cretaceous was a period of great fluviatile activity ; and at the close of the 
Albian the newly folded chains were already worn down to narrow ridges, or a chain of islands, 
bordered with peneplained lands approaching the sea base-level. At this time the Inland 
Kaikoura and Ruahine mountains formed an unbroken folded chain running parallel with the 
continuation of the South Island alpine chain to the north, which had not sunk below Cook 
Strait, and the volcanic region of north-west Wellington. What is now the Seaward Kaikoura 
Range occurred as a secondary fold to the south-east of the Inland Kaikouras. 

With the emergence of these chains in the Early Cretaceous the excavation of the Clarence 
Valley began, the rate of erosion being accelerated by the anticlinal arrangement of the Trio- 
Jurassic strata and the shattering effects of the Clarence fault. 

During the Albian stage, at the time the pencplaining (if the axial chains of the mainland 
was in progress, the sea began to invade eastern Marlborough, where it laid down sediments that 
have been shown by Mr. H. Woods, F.R.S.,* on the evidence of their fossil contents, to be 
Lower Utatiir (Albian). At the same time Albian sediments were deposited on the coasts of 
east Wellington, Hawke's Bay, and Poverty Bay, along the east side of the Ruahine chain. 

At the close of the Albian the Cenomanian transgression became general ; and soon after the 
sea encroached on the newly formed coastal penej)lain, Tahora, that everywhere fringed the main 
chains, which were themselves reduced to features of low relief. On the surface of the jJcneplain, 
and also on the Albian beds already deposited, sediments were laid down by the advancing sea 
throughout the remainder of the Upper Cretaceous. 

At the close of the Danian stage the world-wide recession of the sea began ; and, though not 
a great retreat, it permitted the removal of the weak post-Albian beds from the greater part of 
the uplifted Tahoran peneplain, and in part from the Clarence depression. The absence of 
identifiable Eocene beds would tend to show that the ujjlift was of longer duration in New 
Zealand than in western Europe. 

Late in the Eocene there began a general subsidence, which continued in the Wanganui- 
Hawke's Bay region till the close of the Pliocene. During the Miocene the Oamaruian 
Formation was deposited, in some areas on the slightly eroded surface of the surviving Upper 
Cretaceous strata, but mainly on the surface of the newly uncovered Trio-Jurassic and older 
rocks of the Tahoran peneplain. 

* H. Woods: The Cretaceous Faunas of the North-ea.stern Part of the South Island of New Zealand, Pal. Bull. 
No. i, N.Z. Geol. Surr., p. 4, 1917. 


To the north and south, owing to crustal warping, deposition ceased at the close of the 
JVIiocene. Before the close of the Miocene there began a differential uplift in Auckland and 
Otago, pivoting on the Napier-Wanganui zone, where the movement still continued downward, 
this arising from the thrust accompanying the tilting of the ends of the main chains. 

Middle Tertiary rocks are well represented in south-west Southland ; but, in consequence of 
the uplift that began at the close of the Miocene, marine Pliocene strata are everywhere absent 
in the south. The Pliocene uplift took place along the course of the axial chains. It was a 
revival of movement along the north-cast and south-west direction of folding, but was not 
accompanied by rock-folding, and was orogenic only in the sense that it uplifted the present 
chains and gave them the finishing touches. The upward movement was more rapid along the 
axes of the chains than along the coasts. And as a consequence of the tensional stresses 
caused by this differential uplift the Miocene and Older Pliocene strata were not upraised equally. 
In some areas they rise upward from the coast by a gentle ascent ; but where they attain their 
greatest elevation they ascend by a series of step-faults. 

Generally, throughout both Islands the stresses introduced by the differential uplift were 
relieved by the formation of powerful faults, some of which followed the course of ancient 
dislocations. During the progress of the Phooene movement many blocks and strips of the 
Upper Cretaceous and Middle Tertiary covering sheet of strata became entangled in trough- 
faults, where they were protected from the destruction that removed the similar covering strata 
from the uplifted mountain-blocks. In this work of destruction the Pleistocene ice-sheet played 
a prominent part, especially in the highlands of Southland, Otago, and Canterbury. 

It was during the progress of the Pliocene uplift that the Miocene strata were faulted along 
the floor of the Waiau rift- valley, and uptilted high on the flanks of the ranges to the east and 
west of Lake Te Anau. The Pliocene uplift was accompanied by a lowering of temperature, and 
with the advent of the Pleistocene there began a period of intense refrigeration. At first there 
was an increase of fluviatile activity, and piles of gravel-drift were spread over the valley-floors 
to a great depth. At the time of maximum cold the land lay in the grip of an ice-sheet 
that filled the lake-basins and descended the Waiau Valley. The ice scored and grooved the 
sides of the mountain canons, regraded the valley-floors, truncated projecting spurs, and carried 
a load of rocky debris to the lowlands. With the coming of a warmer cycle the ice began its 
homeward retreat to the higher moimtains, where remnants still survive. The retreat was 
accompanied by a revival of fluviatile activity. The Waiau River, which during the early part 
of the Pleistocene had piled up a flood-plain to a level reaching many himdred feet above the 
present bed, began its work of destruction, and, aided by a general uplift of the land or 
recession of the sea, has now removed its ancient drifts, leaving only broad terraces that contour 
around the sides of the valley and mark the height of the Pleistocene flood-plain. 

The Succession of Life. 

The bands of limestone associated with the schists and gneisses of the Cambrian Dusky 
Sound Series would lead us to the belief that some form of marine life existed in these seas in 
pre-Ordovician times. Elsewhere the Cambrian seas teemed with a varied and well-developed 
life, but no trace of fossiliferous rocks of this period have been found in New Zealand. If 
fossils ever existed they have been obliterated by the intense metamorphism the pre-Ordovician 
rocks have suffered. 

The Ordovician graptolites of Preservation Inlet and north Nelson are the oldest form of 
life known in New Zealand. The genera that have been identified are closely related to forms 
well known in the Ordovician of Australia and Europe. Graptolites are now regarded as an 
ancient and aberrant type of the Hydrozoa. In many respects they are related to the Sertularians 
of the present day ; but, unlike these, they were free. Their world-wide distribution and the 
restricted vertical range of certain types appear to indicate the means of rapid dispersal that a 
continuous sea fro:a north to south would afford. At even this early period in the earth's history 

7b accompotiy 3ti2h'ti7i.K"Ji3 Wesf4}yn. South If livd SouOiltmei and tSoixl J)ivi-,ion\ Soxtthlajtd Luuff Ditfrixi 

-I *-h(l 





PojaUi aX Runs 

B'^di Troths 

- ReFe ence to Geolo fe cal Colours and S ^i 


t AS 











"""> > ?EB L 




Q !}y i Ja. 

-^ Jl 

'> }^> 

I \ 1^ 



^ ^ t7 


the framework of the great continents had already assumed definite form. And the conception 
of a connected sea, with uniform conditions of deposition and climate, over the vast area covered 
by the deposits containing identical graptolites, with its postulate of contemporaneity of life 
in all parts, is in conflict with the distribution of recent organisms. The identical species 
cannot have been produced simultaneously in all the areas where their remains are now 
found. They must have been dispersed by migration from one or other of these areas, or 
from some centre of origin still unknown ; and this dispersal must have been spread over 
a long period of time. Deposits may be spoken of as " homotaxial " when they contain identical 
or closely related fossils, but this does not imply that they have been laid down at precisely 
the same time everywhere. 

Silurian rocks have not been recognized ni Southland or Otago, but are well represented 
in the Keefton and Baton districts in Nelson. There they contain a rich marine fauna that 
includes Trilobites (an ancient form of crustacean), many molluscs, brachiopods, and corals. 
Generally the life of this period indicates shore conditions of deposition and the prevalence 
of warm seas. The genera show a closer relationship to the Silurian life of western Europe 
and North America than to that of Australia. This tends to show that considerable geographical 
changes took place at the close of the Ordovician. The continuous sea still extended to the north ; 
but a land ridge separated New Zealand and Australia, and in the seas to the north-west of this 
ridge the Australian Silurian types developed along lines that differentiate tliem from the New 
Zealand - Atlantic contemporary forms. 

At the close of the Silurian there began a regional uplift which continued throughout the 
Devonian and well into the Carboniferous. As a consequence of this elevation no marine deposits 
were laid down in the New Zealand area till the close of the Carboniferous, when a general trans- 
gression of the sea began. This transgression continued u}) till the Permian, and it was at this 
time that the Permo-Carboniferous Maitai beds were laid down. The material composing these 
beds ranges from fine muds to coarse conglomerates and breccias. Associated witli these beds 
there are beds of limestone ; some of these are thin short lenses, but others are deposits of great 
thickness. In the Bryneira Kange, north of the HoUyford Valley, the Maitai limestone bands 
and alternating aphanitic sandstones are over 2,000 ft. in thickness.* Clearly a land area with 
mountain -chains drained by streams, and a spacious sea swarming with calcareous organisms, 
existed in the New Zealand region of the Permo-Carboniferous. It was earlier suggested that 
the detrital material of the Ordovician and Silurian rocks was derived from a land-mass lying 
to the west or north-west ; and we are further tempted to suggest that the Permo-Carboniferous 
land was a reimiant of the pre-Ordovician land. Glacial deposits of Late Paljeozoic age have 
been recognized in Australia, India, South Africa, and Russia ; and recently the authorf has 
reported the discovery of striated boulders in a Maitai or Tc Anau breccia at Taieri Mouth. It 
is evident that the Permo-Carboniferous lands throughout the greater part of tlie globe were high 
enough to support glaciers that descended to the sea. The alternative view is that the glaciation 
was not alpine, but arose from a secular refrigeration that affected the whole or greater part of the 
earth. This view is disproved by the abundant terrestrial flora and marine fauna of that period. 

Though marine rocks of Permo-Carboniferous age occur in New Zealand, there is no trace 
of beds containing relics of the terrestrial flora of that period. Moreover, no trace is known of 
any Palteozoic land floras in these Islands, which is singular when we consider the great thickness 
of alternating argillites and sandstones that occur in the Silurian Baton River Series in association 
with rocks containing a shallow-water marine fauna. So far as the present evidence stands, the 
history of New Zealand as a land area begins with the Middle Trias. As a consequence, the 
relationship of New Zealand to the Permo-Carboniferous Gondwanaland that is believed to have 
occupied a large part of the Southern Hemisphere is still obscure. The fem-Uke GlossoTpteris,% 

* J. Park: Rep. Geol. Expl. during 1886-87, p. 132, 1887. 

jj. Park : On the Occurrence of Striated Boulders in a Paiseozoic Breccia near Taieri Mouth, Otago, N.Z., Trans 
N.Z. Inst., vol. 52, pp. 107-8, 1920. 

{ Greek, glossa = tongue, and pleris = a fern 


which flourished all over that ancient continent, ap])ears to be absent in New Zealand ; but many 
other land-plants that are commonly associated with that genus in the older Mesozoic of Aus- 
tralia, India, South America, and South Africa are present in the Mesozoic beds of the South 
Island. For the present the relationship of New Zealand to Gondwanaland must remain an open 
question . 

The interval between the Permian and Middle Trias is unrepresented by recognizable sedi- 
ments, but from the Middle Trias to the close of the Jurassic there was continuous deposition 
over the greater part of both Islands. The sediments of this period consist mainly of shales, 
argillites, sandstones, and conglomerates of deltaic and marine origin. Marine beds with a littoral 
fauna alternate with beds containing a terrestrial flora, but there is a remarkable absence of hme- 
stones or of beds that would indicate deep-sea conditions of deposition. The thickness of this 
great formation is over 10,000 ft., and from the bottom to the top the sediments indicate the 
proximity of a land subject to fluviatile denudation. The Middle Mesozoic was a period of pro- 
gressive subsidence, and the rate of submergence kept pace with the rate of deposition. The 
accumulation of these sediments caused tremendous crustal stresses, accompanied by sagging in 
a narrow zone rmming parallel with the ancient shore-line. These stresses were cumulative, and 
at the close of the Jurassic started the Rangitatan rock-folding that originated the N.E.-S.W. 
axial chains. The origin of the contemporary N.W.-S.E. folding is unknown. The dominant 
Rangitatan movement was accompanied by faulting and intense local vulcanicity. The elevation 
of the New Zealand chains in the Early Cretaceous witnessed the submergence of the ancient 
Mesozoic land, from which the sediments that compose the folded rocks of the axial chains were 

The marginal distribution of the Middle Tertiary strata to the east and west of the present 
Alps tends to show that this submergence took place early in the Cretaceous. And the occurrence 
of Upper Cretaceous marine strata to the east, and their absence to the west — if that absence is 
not to be accoimted for by denudation — may indicate that the sunken land lay to the west of the 
present Alps, as postulated by Hochstetter. 

The fossils enclosed in the Trio-Jurassic rocks tell us that the land at that time was 
clothed with a mesophytic vegetation consisting of ferns, cycads, and conifers, while the 
contemporary seas swarmed with molluscs, brachiopods, and other marine life. The large 
size of the tree-trunks in the petrified Jurassic forest at Curio Bay, Waikawa, and the 
myriad mussels (Mytilus) enclosed in the marine beds of the Upper Trias prove that the 
climatic conditions were those we should now associate with the Temperate Zone. 

The relationship of Mesozoic New Zealand to the other continents is still in doubt, this 
arising from the meagre knowledge we possess as to the processes of dispersal of plant and 
animal life. Many of the terrestrial j^lants are identical with, or closely related to, forms 
found in Australia, India, Siberia, Scotland, and England. This wide distribution of allied 
species appears to support the view that a more or less continuous land bridge stretched 
from New Zealand to north-west Eurasia in Mesozoic times. Moreover, the specific identity 
of some of the characteristic moUuscan species of the New Zealand Trias, as of Daonella 
and Monotis, with those of the alpine Trias of Eurasia adds support to this view. It is 
well known that the free larvae of molluscs are capable of rapid dispersal in a continuous 
sea ; and a continuous land bridge postulates a continuous shore. But while the northern 
lands were clothed with forests, in which the gigantic club-mosses Lepidodendron and 
Sigillaria and giant horse-tails {Catamites) were conspicuous, the lands of the Southern 
Hemisphere were occupied by an assemblage of plant-life dominated by what has been 
described as the " Glossopteris flora." It is possible that climatic conditions may have been 
responsible for the absence of this flora in Mesozoic New Zealand and western Europe. 

The Jurassic period came to an end with a world-wide diastrophic movement accom- 
panied by elevation. New Zealand, Tasmania, Australia, and the great continents were in 
great part converted into dry land, which lasted in North America, Eurasia, and Australia 
till the beginning of the Cretaceous, and in New Zealand till the Middle Cretaceous (Albian), 


except perhaps in the west of Auckland, where there are deltaic beds that have been 
ascribed to the Neocomian.* 

The moUuscan and reptilian Cretaceous faunas of north-east Australia and New Zealand 
are closely related ; and .this relationship may be taken as an evidence of a land connection 
joining these areas at that period. 

The great crustal movements and the accompanying epochal changes in the world's 
fauna and flora that took place in the Northern Hemisphere at the close of the Cretaceous 
reached as far as New Zealand and Australia. The huge reptiles that haunted the Cretaceous 
deltas disappeared, and in the north mammals took their place on land. The flying reptiles 
were succeeded by birds, and forests of deciduous tiees harboured swarms of insect-life. 

It is probable that the land bridge between New Zealand and north-east Australia 
continued till the Eocene, and this may explain the absence of marine sediments of that 
jjcriod in Australia and New Zealand. The Eocene uplift came to an end towards the close 
of that period ; and it was about this time that torrential streams jnled up a vast thickness 
of fluviatile drift and angular rocky debris on the steeply sloping floor of the sea bordering 
the axial chains of New Zealand, and in this way built up the coastal platform on which 
the coal vegetation of the Early Tertiary flourished. 

Towards the close of the Eocene there began a transgression of the sea that submerged 
the coastal lands in both hemispheres. In New Zealand the Eocene deltaic plains, with their 
accumulation of decaying vegetable matter, became buried beneath a thick sheet of marine 
sediments that constitute what is called the Oamaruian Formation. 

The sheet of U^jper Cretaceous sediments, that were laid down on the surface of the 
ancient New Zealand peneplain (Tahora) as a result of the Cenomanian transgression, were 
removed by denudation during the Eocene uplift, except in a few areas where they were 
protected in down-faulted depressions. As a consequence of this the Miocene Oamaruian rests 
partly on these Cretaceous remnants, but mainly on the uncovt-red surface of the peneplain. 

Geologically and economically the Oamaruian is the most important of the Cainozoic 
formations in New Zealand. It consists of a succession of sediments ranging from the 
Oligocene or latest Eocene to the beginning of the Pliocene. The lowermost beds consist 
of terrestrial and deltaic sediments that are followed by marine clays, sands, and limestones. 

The terrestrial and deltaic beds enclose valuable seams of lignite, brown coal, and 
bituminous coal, and comprise what is known as the Oamaruian coal-measures, which contain 
85 per cent, of the available coal in the Dominion. 

The character of the abundant molluscan fauna contained in tlie marine sediments tells 
us that the chmatic conditions prevailing during the Middle Tertiary were semi-tropical — 
perhaps not unlike those of north Auckland of the present day. 

At the close of the Miocene the Oamaruian covered the greater part of New Zealand. 
The author was the first to recognize that these isolated patches are the renmants of what 
was formerly a continuous marginal sheet that contoured around the partially submerged 
chains of the Older Tertiary period. This generalization suggested a new line of investiga- 
tion, and soon led to a better understanding of the geographical conditions of these and 
later times. 

Middle Tertiary strata occur at Campbell Island and the Chatham Islands. The 
inference to be dra^vn from this is that, though separated from Australia, these outlying 
islands still formed a part of the New Zealand mainland. 

At the close of the Miocene the downward movement ceased, and there began, as already 
described on a preceding page, what has been called the Ruahine uplift, which followed the axial 
chains. The uplift was differential, and this introduced tensional stresses that were relieved 
by the fracturing of the Tertiary strata and uplifted rock-platform on which they rested. 
The fractures for the most part ran parallel with the axis of elevation. Faulting and the 

*E. A. Newelx. Arber; The Earlier Mesozoic Floras of New Zealand, Pal. Bull. No. 6, N.Z. Geol. Surv., 1917. 


tilting of crustal blocks accompanied the uplift of the axial chains. It was at this time 
that the isolated blocks of Oamaruian strata scattered along the flanks of the ranges became 
engulfed in fault-fractures or left as broken tilted masses in troughs and intermontane basins. 

During the progress of the Pliocene uplift the rains of that period removed the weak 
Miocene strata from the greater part of the uplands ; and later the work of destruction was 
carried on by the Pleistocene glaciers. It was only along the coasts, and where sheltered 
in basins bounded by faults, that remnants of the once great sheet of Middle Tertiary 
sediments were able to survive. 

The Pliocene uplift increased the area of New Zealand considerably, especially towards the 
north-west ; but there is no evidence that any land connection was established at this period with 
Australia, South Africa, South America, or Antarctica. 

The fauna of New Zealand contains a large Malayan element, and shows some relationship 
to the South American and Antarctic faunas. With the exception of a bat, which may have been 
wind-carried, there is an entire absence of endemic land-mammals ; and generally the fauna, 
though showing a great variety of forms, is of a low type. Some orders are common to New 
Zealand and Australia, others to New Zealand and South America ; while some orders common 
to Australia and South America are unrepresented in New Zealand. It is evident that the 
isolation of New Zealand must date back to the Early Tertiary. 

Professor Gill has suggested that an Antarctic land was the common centre of dispersal. 
From tliis southern continent land bridges extended northward to South Africa, South America, 
and Malaysia, this last by way of New Zealand. These land bridges became disconnected with 
the parent land at different periods. The first break took place in the connection with South 
Africa, soon followed by a break with South America. The break between New Zealand and 
Malaysia took place before the spread of the marsupials began. It was probably after this that 
New Zealand became isolated from the southern continent. 


The classification adopted for the purpose of this report is shown in the following table of 
rock formations : — 





River-gravels, beach-sands, &c. . . 


Pleistocene <; 

(a.) High-level gravels, glacial drifts, and moraines 


(6.) Mararoa clays, and silts with lignite .. 

> Pleistocene. 


(c.) Orepuki clays, and silts with lignite .. 






(5.) Marine clays and sandy beds 


(4. ) Limestone 

Oamaruian < 

{?,.) Sandstones and clays 

(2.) Fireclays, with seams of brown coal . . 

> Miocene. 

(1.) Conglomerates, grits, sandstones, and limestone 

Unconformity . . 

Period of uplift with faulting, but no folding 



Absent in Southland . . 

Upper Cretaceous. 

Unconformity \ 

Rangitatan N.E.-S.W. folding .. 
Hokonuian N.W.-S.E. folding . . 

1 Lower Cretaceous. 


Shales, argillites, greywackes, and conglomerates . . 


Unconformity . . 

Atawhenuan folding, with intrusion of Clinton River diorite 

3, &c. '. '. 

Permian or Early Triassic 


Argillites, greywackes, aphanitic sandstones and breccias, lii 



Unconformity . . 

Tuhuan folding, with granitic intrusions . . 



Absent in Southland . . 



(4.) Golden Ridge Series — Absent 


(3.) Preservation Inlet Series — Slaty argillites, greywackes, q 


)■ Ordovician. 


and mica-schist 


(2.) Maniototian — Schists, quartzites, and limestones 

, , 



(1.) Dusky Sound Gneissic Ssries — Gneisses, schists, and lim 

estones . . 

Cambrian or older. 




Historical and General 


Structure . . 


Origin of Metamorphism 

Dusky Sound Series — 

Character and Distribution 
Structure and Thickness . 




aniototo Series- — 

Character and Distribution 

.. 36 


.. 36 

General Petrology 

.. 36 

Foliation and (lriu;in of Schists 

.. 37 

reservation Inlet Series — 

Distribution and Structure 

.. 37 

Age . . 

.. 38 


The Manapouri System includes the " crystalline schists " of Sir James Hector,* the base rock 
of which he described as consisting of foliated and contorted gneiss that, he thought, corresponded 
with Humboldt's " gneiss-granite " forming the core of the Andes of South America. It com- 
prises the Manapouri System| of Captain Hutton (1885), which he afterwards (1899) abandoned 
in favour of his Wanaka System. J In 1910 Professor Park§ revived the Manapouri System of 
Captain Hutton ; and the name " Manapouri," though not the most appropriate that could be 
found, is so well established in the literatur(> of New Zealand geology that it may be allowed to 

The metamorphic rocks of Westland form the core of the Alps, and lithologically, and 
probably also in age, are closely related to the crystalline schists of Otago and Southland. They 
constitute the " Gneiss-granite Formation " of Sir Julius von Haast.[| 

Professor S. H. Cox^ divided the crystalline rocks of Westland into two groups, which he 
called the " Granite and granitic gneiss " group and the " Metamorphic rocks " group, the former 
being the base rocks. Mr. P. G. Morgan,** who continued the detailed survey of north Westland 
begun by Dr. J. M. Bell and Mr. C. Fraser, placed the crystalline rocks in the Arahura Series 
of Bell and Fraser, which he subdivided into : (1) Lower gneisses and schists ; (2) mica-schists ; 
(3) less altered greywackes and argillites. 

In south-west Nel.son the metamorphic rocks disappear below Silurian and Tertiary strata, but 
reappear to the north. In his report on the " Geology of Collingwood County " Professor Park 
(1889) divided the older Palaeozoic rocksff into three groups — viz., the Pikikiruna Series, Aorere 
Series, and Riwaka Series. In their report on the Parapara Subdivision of Collingwood County 
Dr. J. M. BellJJ and others grouped all the gneisses, amphibolites, mica-schists, crystalline 
limestones, quartzites, and .slates containing graptolites in one great formation, which they called 
the Aorere Series. The Aorere Series of Dr. Bell is the equivalent of the Arahura Series of 
Mr. Morgan and of the Manapouri System of Professor Park. 

The subdivision of the Manapouri System is based partly on lithological and partly on 
palseontological grounds. Progressive metamorphism can be traced downwards, from the partially 

* J. Hector: Outh'ne of New Zealand Oe.oloqy, pp. 84-8.5, Wellington, 1886. 

fF. W. Hutton: Sketch of the Geology oif New Zealand, Quart. Jour. Geol. Sor., p. 191, 1885. 

i F. W. HttTTON: Trans. N.Z. [»M., vol. 32, p. 183, 1900. 

§ J. Park : The Geology of Ne'i> Zealand, p. 28, Christchurch, 1910. 

I| J. VON Haast: The GeoUxjy of Canterhnn/ and WeMlnnd, p. 252, Christchurch, 1879. 

IfS. H. Cox: Rep. Geol. Expl. dnrinq ]S74-76, p. 66, 1877. 

** P. G. MoROAX: Geology of Mikonui Subdivision, Geol. Bull. No. 6 fN.8.), p. 76, 1908. 

ft J. Park : Rep. Geol. Expl. durinq 18S8-S!), No. 20, p. 230, 1890. 

Jt J. M. Bell and others: Geol. Bull. No. 3 (N.S.), p. 33, 1907. 

3— Geol. BuU. No. 23. 


altered Lower Ordovician or Upper Cambrian argillites, &c., to the highly altered gneissic rocks 
of the Dusky Sound Series. 

The Dusky Sound Series consists mainly of gneisses, schists, and limestones, and the 
Maniototian mainly of felsitic schist, mica-schist, and chlorite-schist. The slaty argillites (often 
graphitic), mica-schist, phyllite, and semi-metamorphic greywackes of the overlying graptolite- 
bearing series are almost indistinguishable from the similar rocks in central and north Otagc 
usually referred to the Kakanui Series of Hector. 

The total thickness of the three divisions of the Manapouri System as exposed at Dusky 
Sound is probably not less than 32,000 ft., and may possibly be much greater. 


The two lower divisions of the Manapouri System extend from the south side of Dusky Sound 
to the north of Caswell Sound. A gigantic split or prolongation of the diorite intrusion that 
occupies the main divide in Fiordland branches off at Mount Bradshaw and follows a northerly 
course to Dusky Sound, where it forms the main mass of Resolution Island. From there it 
pursues its northerly course from fiord to fiord, and reunites once more with the main diorite 
intrusion to the south of Milford Sound, thereby enclosing the metamorphosed divisions of the 
Manapouri System in a ring of diorite intrusives. The coastal diorite batholith lies between the 
Upper Manapouri schists and the Preservation Inlet argillites, which disappear to seaward to 
the south of Breaksea Sound. 

Sir James Hector, Captain Hutton, and Professor Park always mapped the unknown 
country lying to the west of lakes Monowai, Manapouri, and Te Anau as Archaean. The 
present survey shows that the main divide from Preservation Inlet to the Darran Mountains 
is occupied by the diorites, diorite-gneisses, and granites of the Clinton River intrusive series 
of Late Palaeozoic age. The granite-gneisses, crystalline schists, and limestones of the Mana- 
pouri System are now known to occupy a strip in the Sounds country less than twenty miles 
wide. They disappear six miles to the south of Milford Sound. 

The two lower Manapouri series dip westward — that is, away from the main diorite 
batholith at the head of the Sounds. They are arranged in a great monoclinal. In Westland 
the gneisses and schists of the Manapouri System dip to the east and to the west, forming a 
great anticlinal the axis of which is occupied by the Tuhuan granites. The Ordovician 
argillites at Preservation Inlet and Dusky Sound also dip to the westward. 


No organic remains have been found in the two lower divisions of the Manapouri System. 
The lenses of limestone that occur interbedded with the gneisses and schists of the Dusky Sound 
Series would suggest the former existence of calcareous organisms ; but this is pure surmise. 
The argillaceous and arenaceous sediments of which some of the schists were evidentl y composed 
have been so highly altered that all traces of organic life, if they ever contained any, are, 
so far as at present known, completely obUterated. To determine their age we must therefore 
fall back on the indirect, and not quite satisfactory, method of investigation. 

At Preservation Inlet and Chalky Inlet there occurs a series of blue slates, graphitic slates, 
quartzites, altered sandstones, argillites, and mica-schist. In the blue slaty rocks Mr. A. McKay* 
discovered a number of graptolites that have been ascribed by Dr. T. S. Hallf to the lowermost 
stage (Lancefieldian) of Lower Ordovician. Of the three genera identified by him, Clonograptus 
and Bryograptus are regarded in western Europe as typical of the Tremadoc stage of the Upper 

* A. McKay : Mines Rep., C.-ll, p. 3.5, 1896. 

t T. S. Hall: On the Occurrence of Lower Ordovician Graptolites in Western Otago. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 47, 
pp. 410-11, 1915. 


The strike of the graptolite-bearing slates at Preservation Inlet is N. 23° E. (true bearing), 
a course which would bring them to Anchor Island and west side of Resolution Island, at the 
entrance of Dusky Sound. At both Anchor Island and Facile Harbour, Resolution Island, there 
are blue slates, or slaty argillites, associated with mica-schist and altered greywacke. At Chalky 
Inlet the graptolite-bearing series occupies a belt five miles wide ; and, as the distance from 
the place where they are last seen at Chalky Inlet to Anchor Island, at the entrance of Dusky 
Sound, is only fourteen miles or less, it is not unreasonable to identify the slaty rocks at these 
places with one another. Added to this, Mr. William Docherty (1895) reported the occurrence 
of graptolites in the blue slates at Facile Harbour* ; but this has not yet been verified. 
Though disturbed by the diorite intrusion of Resolution Island, the westerly dip of the 
lower divisions would carry them below the Preservation Inlet argillites. The middle division is 
certainly Cambrian. The lower granite-gneiss series may be Cambrian or older. 


The three divisions of the Manapouri group of rocks recognized by New Zealand geologists 
are distinct lithological units that everywhere show progressive and increasing metamorphism, 
from the unaltered argillites to the highly altered gneisses and schists of the lowest division. 
In Fiordland, Westland, and Nelson the lowest and mostly highly altered division rests on, and 
is intruded by, a granitic and dioritic intrusive complex. In central Otago only the middle 
and upper divisions are exposed at the surface, and nowhere are they in contact with intrusive 
plutonic masses. But the lowest division must exist in this area ; and, as there is no other 
agency that would explain the metamorphism of the upper divisions, it may be surmised that 
the lowest division here, as elsewhere, has been invaded by an intrusive magma that still 
remains uncovered. The metamorphism of the Manapouri group is greatest in the division 
nearest the intruding complex. 

It is generally assumed that the folding of these ancient rocks was directly responsible for 
the dioritic intrusions so commonly a.ssociated with them. But it is possible that the anticlinal 
arching of the Manapouri formations Wcos brought about by the uprising of the vast dioritic 
batholith. Be that as it may, we cannot escape the conclusion that the metamorphism of the 
highly altered gneisses and crystalline schists of the lower Manapouri division was deep-seated, 
and mainly, if not entirely, caused by the high temperature of the plutonic magma. The 
fracturing and parallel arrangement of the constituent minerals, and other cataclastic effects, 
were evidently induced by deep-seated thermal metamorphism. 


The Dusky Sound Series is the equivalent of Mr. Morgan's " lower gneisses and schists " in 
Westland, and of Professor Park's Pikikiruna Series in CoUingwood. 

Character and Distribution. 

The rocks comprised in this series consist mainly of alternating bands of gneiss, mica-schist, 
hornblende-schist, amphibolite, chlorite-schist and crystalline limestone. They extend from Dusky 
Sound to the north of Caswell Sound. Their separation from the less-altered Maniototo Series 
is based solely on lithological grounds 

The schists are distinguished chiefly by the prevalence of rutile, epidote, and amphibole. The 
limestones occur in massive bands, are usually bluish-grey in colour, and in places are speckled 
with small scales of molybdenite. The prevailing gneiss is a typical hornblende-gneiss. Under 
the microscope this rock is seen to consist essentially of feldspar and hornblende. Quartz is usually 

* Mr. Docherty was a well-known prospector who lived for over twenty years at Dusky Sound. He visited Preser- 
vation Inlet in 1895, and, on seeing the graptolites in the blue .slaty argillites in the Morning Star Mine, reported to 
Mr. McKay that he had seen similar organisms in the blue slates at Facile Harbour. A fatal illness prevented his 
return to Dusky Sound. 



present, but is never abundant ; also biotitc, rutile, epidote, chlorite, titaniferous magnetite, and 
apatite. The dominant feldspars are orthoclase and microcline. An acid plagioclase is always 
present, and where abundant the rock may be called a quartz-dioiitc-gneiss. 

The origin of the schists and gneisses is obscure. Some of the former are probably altered 
sedimentaries, and most, perhaps all, the latter altered igneous rocks. The limestones are certainly 
aqueous, but whether they are of organic or of chemical origin is unknown. 

Structure and Thickness. 

The gneisses, schists, and limestones of this series are intruded by the granites and diorites 
of the main divide. They dip away from the intrusives at very high angles. Towards Mount 
Pender the angle of dip flattens to 40° or even less. The structure is a simple monoclinal tUted 
to the west. At the head of Dusky Sound the hornblende-gneiss and associated schists are 
intruded by numerous veins of granite, rangmg from 1 in. up to 30 in. in thickness.* At Caswell 
Sound large angular blocks of limestone are entangled in the intruding diorite. 

The westerly dip of the Dusky Sound Series is maintained for a distance of five miles ; and 
if the average angle of dip be taken at 45° the thickness of the series cannot be less than 14,000 ft. 


These are the mica-schist, chlorite-schist, and quartzite series of western Otago, of Shotover, 
Arrow, Matukituki, and Mount Alta Range in the Wanaka country. They constitute the foliated 
schists of Sir James Hector, the foliated and middle schists of Mr. McKay, and the middle division 
of Mr. Morgan's Arahura Series of north Westland. 

Character and Distribution. 

The rocks of this series as seen at Dusky Sound consist of alternating bands of mica-schist 
(often gametiferous), chlorite-schist, and amphibole-schist,- with which are associated subordinate 
bands of quartzite, quartz-schist, crystalline limestone, massive bands of felsitic schist, and 
schistose greywacke. They occupy a belt of country about six miles wide, extending from 
Mount Pender westward to Long Island. To the westward they show a decreasing degree of 
metaraorphism. To the west of Acheron Passage they are intruded by a northerly prolongation of 
the diorites and intrusive gneisses of the Preservation Inlet area. In the main, this diorite complex 
lies between the Maniototian schists and the argillites of the Preservation Inlet Series. It extends to 
the north, and eventually joins the main diorite batholith to the south of Milford Sound. The 
thickness of the Maniototian schists as exposed between Moimt Pender and the Acheron Passage 
is about 8,000 ft. 


The schists of this series dip to the west at angles that seldom exceed 45°, and apparently 
lie conformably on the gneisses and schists that border them to the east. At Lake Wakatipu 
the schists strike N.W.-S.E. ; in the Shotover area, from N.N.W.-S.S.E. to N.-S. ; and in the 
ranges between the head of the Arrow River and Wanaka country, N.-S. North of Mount Aspiring 
the mica-schists, chlorite-schists, and quartzites cross to the west side of the main divide, and to 
the north their strike conforms with the N.E.-S.W. course of the axial chain. The change of 
strike is a result of the syntaxial N.W.-S.E. and N.E.-S.W. folding. 

General Petrology. 

The mica-schists range, on the one hand, from sericite-schist in which the quartz laminae 
are strongly developed to a sericite-schist in which the quartz lamina; occur in paper-hke 
sheets or are altogether absent ; or, on the other hand, from a normal mica-schist to a micaceous 
quartz-schist that may pass into a quartzite. 

* S. H. Cox : Eep. Geol. Expl. during 1877-78, p. 11, 1879. 


The sericite-schists always contain biotite, which in some bands almost wholly replaces the 
sericite. When examined under the microscope both the sericite-schists and biotite-schists are 
seen to contain much rutile in well-defined needles, a little chlorite as scales and fibres, a few 
plates of an acid plagioclase, and often zoisite, epidote, and calcite as alteration products of the 
feldspar. In some bands the sericite-schists and biotite-schists are speckled with grains and 
well-developed crystals of red garnets that range up to 2 mm. in diameter, and fine grains of 
magnetite. The garnetiferous rocks may be called garnet-mica-schist 

The chlorite-schists range from pale to dark green in colour. Magnetite is nearly always 
present, and often some biotite. Under the microscope sections of chlorite-schist show chlorite 
and quartz, with rutile, titanite, magnetite, and a little plagioclase. Calcite and epidote, though 
not abundant, are seldom altogether absent. 

The amphibole-schists occur in thin bands in the mica-schist. They are composed of quartz 
laminae separated by thin layers of amphibole. In some bands the quartz is almost entirely 
replaced by tremoUte, forming a pale-green fissile rock that may be called tremolite-schist. Thin 
bands of talc-schist with abundant magnetite occur on Mount Pender. 

The feldspathic schists are coarse-grained rocks with partings of biotite or chlorite. Under the 
microscope they are seen to be composed of a mosaic of quartz grains, orthoclase, and plagioclase 
set in a matrix of biotite, chlorite, epidote, and rutile, with calcite, zircon, magnetite, and pyrite 
as accessory minerals. 

In these schists there occur seven thin, heavily mineralized, quartzose bands containing nests 
of chalcopyrite, pyrites, and pyrrhotitc, with which are associated quartz, orthoclase, hornblende, 
garnets as well-developed crystals and thin veins of massive garnet rock, biotite, sericite, 
lepidolite, fuchsite, epidote, magnetite, hrematite, molybdenite in large plates, graphite in thin 
scales, ouvarovite, and vesuvianito, this last in large fine crystals ranging up to 1 in. in length 
and J in. in diameter. In some bands epidote is so abundant as to form a rock that might be 
appropriately called epidote-schist. 

Foliation and Origin of Schists. 
The planes of foliation of the mica-schists coincide with the changes of lithological character 
of the constituent beds or layers, and from this it is inferred that they coincide with the 
bedding-planes of the original sediments. The mica-schists are evidently altered argillaceous 
and arenaceous rocks ; and the chlorite-schists, altered sills or lavas of a basic character. 


This series is the equivalent of the Kakanui Series of Sir James Hector, the upper division 
of the Arahura Series of Dr. Bell and Mr. Fraser as defined by Mr. Morgan, and the Aorere 
Series of Professor Park. It consists mainly of slaty argillites and schistose greywacke, the latter 
usually designated by Mr. McKay " semi-metamorphic schist." Associated with these arc bands 
of phyllite, mica-scliist, quartzite, and crystalline limestone. The slaty rocks are in many places 
carbonaceous or graphitic. In 1873 Sir James Hector mapped the argillites at Preservation 
Inlet and Resolution Island as Older Palaeozoic. 

Distribution and Structure. 

In Fiord County, and generally throughout Southland, Otago, Westland, and Nelson, the 
Kakanuian rocks are conformable to the underlying Maniototian. The line of demarcation 
between the two formations is quite arbitrary, but there is no difficulty in recognizing them in 
the field, as the older series consists essentially of highly altered rocks and the younger series of 
unaltered or only partially altered sediments. 

In the Dusky Sound and Preservation Inlet areas the Ordovician rocks dip to the west at high 
angles — that is, away from the diorites and gneisses by which they are intruded, and which separate 
them from the Maniototian schists. At Preservation Inlet and Chalky Inlet they strike about 


N.W.-S.E. (mag.), and at Resolution Island, Dusky Sound, N. 10° E. (mag.). This difference of strike, 
amounting to nearly 50', in conjunction with their angle of dip, which is steeper than that of the 
underlying series, might be held to be an evidence of imconformity. But at Preservation Inlet 
the Ordovician rocks have been intruded by a long batholith of granite. They dip away from 
the intrusive mass, and it is evident that the direction of the intrusion determined the strike of 
the clastic formation. The thickness of the Preservation Inlet Series as exposed at Dusky Sound 
is 10,000 ft. or more. 


Dr. T. S. Hall,* who examined a collection of graptolites from Preservation Inlet, has stated 
that the fossils clearly belong to the series known as Lancefieldian in Victoria, which is very low 
down in the Ordovician. The forms he recognized are Clonograptus tenellus Linnarson ; Clono- 
graptus tenellus var. callavei Lapwortb ; Clonograptus sp. nov. ; Bryograptus sp. ; Tetragraptus 
decipiens T. S. Hall. 

In Europe and America the genus Clonograptus is not known in the Ordovician, but is regarded 
as characteristic of the Upper Cambrian. Whether the graptolite -bearing hoiizon ot Preservation 
Inlet Series should be referred to the Upper Cambrian or to the lowest Ordovician is perhaps not 
of great moment. 

The fossiliferous horizon of the Golden Ridge Series, north Nelson, contains a large and varied 
assemblage of graptolite forms, none of which are found at Preservation Inlet. According to 
Dr. Hallf the Golden Ridge graptohtes belong to the Bendigonian stage of the Lower Ordovician. 

*T. S. Hall: Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 47, pp. 410-11, 1915. f T. S. Hall: loc. oil., pp. 411-13, 1915. 




Historical and General 

Character of Rocks and Distribution . 







. 39 

Age . . . . . . . . . . 39 

Igneous Intrusions . . . . . . . . 40 

Relationaliip of Now Zealand to Gondwana- 
land .. .. .. ..41 


The Maitai System "as now defined includes the Te Anau Series and Maitai Series of Sir James 

Hector (1876 and 1886), which certainly belong to the same formation. They are indistinguishable 

in the field, and have always been grouped together by Captain Hutton, Mr. McKay, and Professor 



In the Waiau country these rocks consist of alternating argillites and greywackes, with which 
are associated bands of red argillite, green aphanitic sandstones and breccias, and red or purple 
aphanitic breccias. In the Bryneira Range, north of the Hollyford Valley, thin beds of argillite 
alternate with thin beds of crystalline limestone. 

The rocks of the Maitai Formation form the Longwood Range, Takitimu Mountains, and 
western part of the Livingstone Mountains. 


In the Longwood Range and Takitimu Mountains the argillites, greywackes, and associated 
rocks are folded in a N.W.-S.E. direction, and are arranged in anticlinal and synclinal folds. In 
the Livingstone Mountains the strike of the rocks is more northerly. It is noteworthy that, though 
the general trend of the Longwood and Takitimu chains is north and south, the rocks composing 
these moimtains are folded in a N.W.-S.E. direction. 


In the Longwood Range the Maitai rocks are so disturbed and broken by igneous intrusions 
that it is difficult to make even an approximate estimate of their thickness. But in the Takitimu 
Mountains, though igneous intrusions are rare, the rocka are intersected by so many faults that 
it is difficult to arrive at a satisfactory estimate of their thickness. Probably 7,000 ft. is not in 
excess of the actual thickness. 


Except some indistinct plant-remains contained in the argillites, this pile of sedimentary 
strata appears to be barren of organic remains. 

In the country north-east of Lake Te Anau and in the Brjoieira Range the Maitai Formation 
rests on the Kakanuian (Hector) ; and the absence of the Silurian (Batonian Series) would 
indicate a considerable unconformity between them. Of this unconformity thi-re is, however, 
not much physical evidence, as both formations are involved in the same system of folding. North- 
east of Mount Hamilton the Maitais are overlain by marly shales that belong to the upper part 
of the Trio-Jurassic Hokonuian. But here also the Maitai and Hokonui formations take part 
in the N.W.-S.E. folding of the Hokonuian movement that, as already described, was syntaxial 
with the N.E.-S.W. Rangitatan folding of the axial chains. 


In the Dun Mcniiitain - Wairoa area in Nelson, where the Maitai rocks are typically developed, 
the Maitai limestones contain a large bivalve sliell with a prismatic structure that was at one time 
referred, with some reservation, to the genus Inoceramus. Mr. C. T. Trochmann,* who has exammcd 
many examples of this pecuhar fossil, is of the opinion that it belongs to the Myalinid genus 
Aphanaia, a few species of which have been described by de Koninck from the Permo-Carboniferous 
of Australia and New Caledonia. 

Besides Aphanaia, Mr. Trechmann identified, among the collections of fossils from the Maitai 
limestone, Platyschisma sp., Pleurotoma or Mourlonia sp., Strophalosia sp. {Productus of Hector), 
Rhynchonella (? jjj/f/wax) cf. pleurodon Phill., Martinia {Martiniopsis) snbradiata G. Sow. {Spirifer 
glaber of Hector), Spirijer cf. hisiilcatns J. Sow. ; also the coral Zaphrenfis sp., and a tubular 
organism that suggests the tubular structures called Torlessia McKayi Batherf (from the Momit 
Torlesse Annelid beds), and the Serptdites Warihi of Waagen. 

Generally, these fossils suggest that the Maitai Formation is Permo-Carboniferous ; and, as 
the lowest fossiliferous horizon of the Hokonuian is not older than Middle Triassic age, the 
pal»ontological evidence would indicate a considerable hiatus between the Maitai and Hokonui 

Note. — In continuation of the present survey, in February, 1921, the author crossed the 
ranges Iving between Lake Wakatipu and Glade House at the head of Lake Te Anau. In the 
course of this journey he examined the Greenstone Valley and traversed the Livingstone Range 
between the Greenstone Saddle and a point opposite the lower end of Lake Gunn, and the 
Darran Range between the sources of the Murcott Burn and Waterfall Creek. At the north end 
of the Livingstone Range fossils were discovered in a band of gritty Umestone interbedded with 
pale-green and blue fissile argiUites. The forms identified included Productus, Spirifer, Spiriferina, 
a Turbo-like: gasteropod, and two corals. At the mouth of Falls Creek in the same district 
Mr. G. M. Moir, M.Sc, discovered on the weathered surface of a green argilUte good examples of 
a tube- like organism that resembles Torlessia McKayi Bather. Similar fossils were also found by 
the author in the same rocks on the Livingstone Range opposite the middle of Lake Gunn. Here 
the argiUites are associated with thin bands of grey limestone. It is of interest to note that in 
his progress report, 1890-91, page xlv. Sir James Hector mentions the occurrence of Permian fossils 
to the west side of Lake Harris in dark-coloured argillaceous sandstones, underlain, according to 
McKay, by grey flaggy limestones that correspond to the Maitai limestone. These limestone bands 
extend south to the Livingstone Range. 


Along the east side of the Bryneira Range the silvery-grey schists of the Maniototian abut 
against the Permo-Carboniferous Te Anau - Maitai rocks along the Une of a great fault. On 
the course of this fault the younger formation is intruded by a series of rocks ranging from 
intermediate to ultra-basic. The diorite, dunite, and serpentine at Hidden Falls Saddle were 
discovered by Professor Park J in 188^ In addition to these rocks. Dr. P. Marshall§ twenty 
years later described gabbro, pyroxenite, and Ihei-zolite, and noted the increasing basicity from 
west to east. 

At the south end of the Takitimu Range, along the boundary of the Tertiary coal-measures 
to the north of the Ohai Valley, the Permo-Carboniferous rocks are intruded by a massive 
dyke of augite-porphyrite. At the south end oi the Longwood Range, besides the granite, 
diorite, and gabbro intrusions to which reference is made in Chapter VI, the Maitai argiUites 
are intruded by dykes of basalt and melaphyre, technical descriptions of which are given by 
Mr. R. A. Farquharson.|| 

* C. T. Trechmann: The Age of the Maitai Series of New Zealand, Geol. Mao. (N.S.), dec. vi, vol. 4, 
pp. 53-64, 1917. 

t The Mount Torlesse Aonelid, Geol. Mag., dec. v, vol. 2, pp. 532-41, 1905. 

{ J. Park : On the Country between the Dart River and Big Bay, liep. Geol. Expl. during 1886-87, pp. 121-37, 
with map and sections, 1887. 

|P. Marshall : Geological Notes on the Country North-west of Lake Wakatipu, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 38, 
pp. 560-67, 1906. 

II Trans. N.Z. Inst, vol. 43, pp. 448-82, 1911 



Throughout the Devonian movement New Zealand, in common with a large part of Australia 
and northern India, was dry land. Of the Middle Devonian transgression of the sea, that 
left richly fossihferous sediments in the northern Shan States and other parts of Asia, there 
is no trace in New Zealand. 

Towards the middle of the Carboniferous period there took place throughout Eurasia a 
great orogenic movement, during which the Lower Carboniferous strata were removed over 
wide areas by subaerial denudation. Hence it has come about that, except in the areas where 
there was continuous deposition, there is a well-marked strati graphical break at the base of 
the Upper Carboniferous strata, which in most northern regions rest directly on the Older 
Palaeozoic rocks. 

Except perhaps on the east coast of Austraha, where Carboniferous strata occur, the main 
mass of that continent and the whole of the New Zealand area remained as dry land till the 
close of the Carboniferous, when there began a great marine transgression that affected Austraha, 
India, and South Africa, and continued into the Permian period. This submergence was 
accompanied by many minor transgressions and recessions of the sea ; and as a consequence 
of these there was laid down a vast pile of alternating fresh-water and deltaic beds, here and 
there intercalated with marine sediments. 

The Permo-Carboniferous marine faunas of Austraha and New Zealand are closely related ; 
but the New Zealand flora of that period is unknown, which may suggest that this area was 
completely submerged. Many of the New Zealand Permo-Carboniferous strata are evidently 
deltaic ; and in these there may yet be found the remains of the flora of the land that furnished 
the sediments of these beds. New Zealand has furnished no Palaeozoic plants,* and no trace 
of the fern-hke Glossopteris, which is the most numerous and characteristic fossil of the " southern " 
or Glossopteris flora, a plant not met with in the normal fossil flora of the northern lands. 

The remarkable similarity of the Permo-Carboniferous fossil floras of South Africa, India, 
and Austraha has led to the suggestion that these lands, now so widely separated, were at 
this time united by direct land coimections, and formed parts of a continent that occupied 
a part of what is now the Indian Ocean. This hypothetical continent has been called Gond- 
wanaland. The absence of Glossopteris in the Permo-Carboniferous rocks of New Zealand may 
suggest that this area did not form a part of the ancient Gondwanaland in the Late Palaeozoic 
period ; but the character of the sediments and the presence of the glacial beds recently 
discovered by Professor Parkf on the east coast of Otago would lead to the conclusion that 
it formed part of a large land-mass lying not far from the shores of Gondwanaland. 

* E. A. Newell Arber : Pal. Bvll. No. 6, N.Z. Geol. Surv., p. 20, 1917. 
tJ. Park: Trans. N.Z. InM., vol. 52, pp. 107-8, 1920. 




Groneral Character and Distribution . . . . 42 

Succession of Intrusions . . . . . . 42 

Age of Intrusions . . . . . . . . 42 

Petrology . . . . . . . . . . 43 

McKinnon's Pass . . . . . . 47 

Sounds Area . . . . . . . . 47 


The Clinton River intrusives occupy the main divide from Preservation Inlet to the HoUyford 
Valley. For a distance of over a hundred miles they lie between the granite-gneisses and 
schists to the west and the Permo-Carboniferous argillites and greywackes to the east ; and 
prolongations extend northward from the Darran Mountains to the Bryneira Range, and eastward 
to the Longwood Range, the Bluff, and Stewart Island. A branching arm extends from Dusky 
Sound to Milford Sound, and envelopes the lower divisions of the Manapouri System. 

The commonest rock of the series is a medium- to coarse-grained hornblende-diorite, in 
which the ferro-magnesian mineral and feldspar are strongly developed. Pyroxene is often 
present ; and it is evident that in some cases the hornblende has developed from augite. 
Quartz is not common. Towards the borders of the batholith the diorites of the oligoclase- 
andesine phase pass into basic diorites of the labradorite-anorthite or gabbro type. Another 
phase is dominated by alkah feldspars, without or with quartz, as in granuUtes and granites. 

In the middle and upper parts of the Clinton Valley and in the Arthur Valley the diorite 
as seen in mass often exhibits a rudely gneissoid structure, and internally there is often 
evidence of compressive stress. In many places the rock is intersected by a network of small 
and large veins of quartz that occupy tensional rents probably formed by some movement 
after complete consolidation. Pegmatite veins are common in the granites south of Lake 
Manapouri, and aphte dykes occur in the serpentine of Milford Sound. Intrusive gneisses 
and hornblende rock occur at McKinnon's Pass. Dykes of camptonite intrude the granite at 
Preservation Inlet, and mica-norite in the Darran Mountains ; and dykes of basalt and augite- 
porphyrite invade the argiUites of Longwood Range and Takitimu Mountains. 

Succession of Intrusions. 

As already mentioned, the diorites intrude the gneisses and schists of the Manapouri 
Formation to the west, and the unaltered Permo-Carboniferous rocks to the east. At Preserva- 
tion Inlet the diorites are intruded by granite, and at Milford Sound by dunite. In the Darran 
Mountains they pass into a mica-norite ; and farther north, in the Bryneira Range, norite is 
associated with gabbro and serpentine. 

The conclusion arrived at is that, in accordance with some process of magmatic differentia- 
tion, the series began with the intrusion of a magma of average composition, and passed in 
successive phases from the more siliceous readjusted magmas to those low in siUca. In other 
words, the series began with a mean magma and ended with extremes. 


The diorites and granites have intruded the Permo-Carboniferous rocks of the Longwood 
Range ; therefore the date of intrusion must be later than that period. And, as boulders of 



diorite, granite, and gneiss are abundant in the conglomerates of the Trio-Jurassic formation 
occupying central and south-east Southland, we must conclude that the date of intrusion 
took place at the close of the Permian, or, at the latest, early in the Trias. 

The date of the dunite intrusions cannot be arrived at with any degree of certainty. 
At Hidden Falls Saddle, on the east side of the Bryneira Range, Permo-Carboniferous rocks are 
intruded by dyke-like masses of norite, gabbro, and serpentine ; in north Westland the Pounamu 
Series of altered olivine, serpentine, and allied ultra-basic rocks occurs as sheets and sills 
intruding the Arahura gneisses and schists of Cambrian age ; and at Dun Mountain dunites 
and serpentine intrude the Permo-Carboniferous Maitai Formation. Nowhere in the South 
Island, so far as known at present, are strata younger than Permo-Carboniferous intruded by 
rocks of the ultra-basic series. But at Wade, north of Auckland, argillites generally believed 
to belong to the Trio- Jurassic formation are intended by a dyke or sill of serpentine. 

Dunite and serpentine do not appear as detrital material anywhere in New Zealand till 
the conglomerates at the base of the Oamaruian of Miocene age is reached. The serpentine 
intrusion at Wade is probably post-Jurassic and pre-Miocene. 

The absence of dunite and serpentine in the Triassic rocks of Nelson cannot be regarded 
as certain evidence that the date of intrusion was post-Triassic. The Triassic conglomerates 
of Nelson contain a series of crystalline eruptive rocks derived from the Pikikiruna Range. 
Clearly, the ancient Triassic shore-line lay to the north-west ; and, as the Trias formation rests 
on the Maitais, it is clear that these rocks and their associated sills of dunite and serpentine 
formed a part of the sea-floor on which the Trias sediments were deposited. The dUnites and 
serpentines of the South Island are post-Permo-Carboniferous, and may very well be pre- 

Sir James Hector always recognized the intrusive character of the dioritic complex, but 
did not know that the dioritic rocks occupied so much territory. In his geological map of 
1873 he shows the diorites as intrusive in the argillites and greywackes of the Longwood 


The dominant type of rock as exposed in the Clinton -Arthur Valley section is a normal 
hornblende-diorite, ranging from medium to coarse grained in texture. On weathered surfaces 
the feldspar is partially kaolinized, and the dark-green hornblende, which is always prominent, 
usually stands out in clear relief. As a rule the feldspar and hornblende occur in about 
equal amount, but in some bands the hornblende predominates to such an extent that when 
seen in mass the rock resembles a dense black amphibolite. In the lower Clinton, at Mount 
Edwards, and the east end of the Darran Range the hornblende is accompanied by much 
pyroxene, occasionally to the exclusion of the former, the rock passing into pyroxene-diorite. 
In other bands the hornblende is accompanied by a smaU amount of biotite. 

Hornblende-diorite. — This is the typical rock of the diorite series. It forms the walls of 
the Clinton and Arthur caiaons, and the main mass of the mountains to the north and 

Macroscopically the prominent grey feldspar and hornblende minerals impart a granitoid 
appearance to the rock, which generally is hard and not much jointed. 

In thin slice, under the microscope, the rock is seen to be a holocrystalline aggregate of 
feldspar and hornblende, with magnetite, apatite, sphene, calcite, and sometimes quartz as 
accessory minerals. An orthorhombic pyroxene is sometimes present. 

The plagioclase occurs in large plates, as a rule without well-defined boundaries ; highly 
twinned on the albite law, with occasionally fine examples of perichne twinning ; mostly 
oligoclase and labradorite or andesine ; often decomposed to kaolin and calcite. 

The hornblende is abrmdant, with ragged outUnes ; colour, usually yeUowish-green ; shows 
alteration to a product resembhng chlorite with magnetite inclusions ; high birefringence and 
refractive index ; usually allotriomorphic. 


Analysis by Otago School of Mines. 

Silica (SiOa) 
Alumina (AljOg) 
Ferric oxide (Fe2 03) 
Ferrous oxide (FeO) 
Titanium oxide (TiOj) 
Manganous oxide (MnO) 
Calcium oxide (CaO) 
Magnesium oxide (MgO) 
Potassium oxide (K^O) 
Sodium oxide (NajO) 
Water lost below 100° C. 
Water lost above 100° C. . 
Phosphorus pentoxide (PjOg) 
Carbon dioxide (CO 2) 

The rock also contains traces of barium and strontium oxides. 

Per Cent. 


Quartz-biotite-diorite. — This rock is fairly common in the upper Clinton Valley, and may 
be a later intrusion than that of the hornblende-diorites. 

Macroscopically this is a medium-grained rock, in which the feldspars and hornblende are 
easily recognizable. 

Microscopically the rock is seen to be composed of plagioclase and hornblende, with smaller 
amounts of biotite and quartz. Epidote and sphene occur as accessory minerals, and a few grains 
of secondary pyrites. 

The plagioclase is probably andesine, much twinned on the albite law. The hornblende is 
green, and shows decomposition to a chloritic product and magnetite. 

The relative proportions of soda and lime show that the plagioclase is mainly andesine, with 
perhaps some labradorite. The results of an analysis of this rock made by the Government 
Analyst are given below : — 

SiUca (SiOj) 
Alumina (AI2O2) 
Ferric oxide (Fe203) 
Ferrous oxide (FeO) 
Titanium oxide (TiOg) 
Manganoxis oxide (MnO) 
Calcium oxide (CaO) 
Magnesium oxide (MgO) 
Potassium oxide (KjO) 
Sodium oxide (Na^O) 
Water lost below 100° C. 
Water lost above 100° C. 
Phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5 
Carbon dioxide (CO 2) 

S UJ ^^ItWIlr 



Per Cent 

. . 55-92 

. . 19-34 











)' ■'■ 



. 0-18 


Pyroxene-diorite. — -This rock occurs as boulders among the gravels of the lower Clinton River. 

Macroscopically it is a medium-grained grey rock, speckled with partially kaolinized feldspar 
and dark-green hornblende. 

Microscopically the rock is composed of plagioclase, mostly labradorite and andesine, finely 
twinned after the albite and Carlsbad laws ; hornblende in green and idiomorphic crystals ; augite 
in irregular crystals, often changed to uraUte ; with apatite, sphene, and magnetite as accessory 
minerals, and epidote, chlorite, calcite, and iron oxide as secondary product*". 


An augite-diorite, or gabbro, occui-s in the floor of the Round Hill sluicing claim, at the south 
end of the Longwood Range. It has been described by Mr. R. A. Farquharson, M.Sc, who states 
that it consists essentially of plagioclase, augite, and hornblende. The augite in some cases seems 
to take the form of diallage. The plagioclase is regarded as almost pure anorthito. 

The percentage of sihca is as low as in a normal gabbro. Th(> general composition of the 
rock indicates that the feldspar is probably labradorite, not anortliite, as supposed by 
Mr. Farquharson. His analysis* is as follows : - 












Per Cent. 






Gabbro. — A boulder in the drift at the mouth of the Cleddau River. A coarse-grained 
dark-grey rock. 

Macroscopically this rock showed feldspar, hornblende, augite, and biotite. 

Microscopically the plagioclase, which is probably labradorite, showed fine twinning on the 
albite law. The ferro-magnesian minerals are abundant, and sliow ill-defined boundaries. The 
analysis of this rock by the Government Analyst shows the composition of a normal gabbro. 

Analysis of Gabbro. 


Silica (SiO.,) 

Ferric oxide (Fe2 03) 
Ferrous oxide (FeO) 
Titanium oxide (TiO^) 
Manganous o.xide (MnO) 
Calcium oxide (CaO) 
Magnesium oxide (MgO) 
Potassium oxide (KjO) 
Sodium oxide (Na^O) 
Water lost under 100° C 
Water lost over 100° C. 
Barium oxide (BaO) 
Strontium oxide (SrO) 
Carbon dioxide (CO 2) 
Phosphorus pentoxide (PjOj) 

Per Cent. 






Biotite-norite. — This rock forms a large boss-like mass at the east end of the Darran 
Mountains, at the sources of the Cleddau River. 

Macroscopically it is a dark-grey granitoid rock of medium texture, in which feldspar and 
sometimes flakes of biotite are conspicuous. 

Microscopically the rock coasists of plagioclase, hypersthene, and biotite. The plagioclase 
occurs as large plates, well twinned on the albite law, often kaoUnized ; and as small idiomorphs in 

* R. A. Farquharson : The Platinum Gravels of Orepuki, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 43, p. 465, 1911. 


the ground-mass, well twinned and fresh. The extinction angle indicates a basic variety, probably 

The hyperstheue is abundant as irregular plates and grains, with schiller structure well 
developed ; alteration to a serpentine product is common. The biotite occurs in large irregular 
plates, and is often altered to a chloritic mineral enclosing magnetite. 

Biotite-granite. — At the south-east end of Longwood Range, on the west side of Pourakino 
Creek, which flows into Jacob's Estuary, a large batholith of granite intrudes the argillites 
of the Maitai Formation. 

Macroscopically the rock is grey in colour and from fine to medium grained in texture. 

Microscopically the essential constituents are orthoclase and microcline, quartz and biotite, for 
the most part hypidiomorphic. The biotite is not abundant, and in some places is rare. It as a 
rule shows alteration to a chloritoid product and magnetite. Among the accessory minerals in the 
rock are apatite and sphene. 

Granite. — Intruding the Ordovician slaty argillites at Preservation Inlet there is a mass of 
coarse-grained pink granite with conspicuous feldspars. 

Microscopically the rock is composed of orthoclase and oligoclase in about equal amount, 
quartz, and biotite. 

Granulite. — A massive of this rock is intruded by the dunite and serpentine at Anita 
Bay, Milford Sound. 

Macroscopically the rock is fine-grained and granular, and contains little or no ferro- 
magnesian mineral. • 

Microscopically it consists of an intimate mixture of orthoclase and quartz, which has 
derived its granular texture from the simultaneous crystallization of these constituents. 

In texture and composition the rock varies considerably, this arising from the varying 
proportions of the feldspar and quartz. This mass of granulite (aplite) is of unusual size for a 
rock of this type. It is probably an acid segregation from the original dioritic magma. The 
composition of what appeared to be an average sample is shown })y the following analysis by 
the Government Analyst : — 

Analysis of Granulite. 

Per Cent. 


. , 


. 75-62 


. 13-23 




. 0-21 













HjO lost under 100° C. 


H2O lost above 100° C. 



. Trace 



s .. 




Ultra-basic Intrusives. — Intrusive masses of dunite, and of dunite altered to serpentine, occur 
at Anita Bay, Milford Sound ; at the Hidden Falls Saddle and OUvine Range, to the north of 
the HoUyford Valley ; and at Red Hill, to the east of Big Bay. With these masses are 
associated bowenite, harzburgite or saxonite, Iherzolite, and pyroxenite. Mineralogical descrip- 
tions of some of these rocks have been given by Professor Ulrich, Dr. Marshall, and Professor 



Park ; but such descriptions are not of much value unless accompanied by the chemical analysis 
of typical examjjles. As the analyses are not yet available detailed reference to these intrusions 
will be given later. 

McKinnon's Pass. 

On the summit of the pass there is a small lens of gneisses and hornblende rock, usually 
well foliated. At the outcrop the constituent feldspars are much decomposed, and in consequence 
of this the gneisses are generally soft and friable. The pass owes its existence to the circum- 
stance that the gneisses are less resistant than the neighbouring diorites forming Momit Balloon 
and Mount Hart. 

A whitish-grey rock from the pass, that as seen in place resembles a foliated micaceous 
quartzite, is found to be, when examined in thin slice, a fine-grained mica-gneiss composed of 
microline and plagioclase, muscovite, biotite, abimdant quartz, sphene, and epidote. This is 
(M 1) described by Mr. Speight (1910). With this rock is associated a diorite -gneiss, often well 
foliated and usually much decomposed at the surface. Under the microscope this rook is seen 
to consist of plagioclase (mostly oligoclase), hornblende, biotite, a little muscovite, quartz (usually 
abundant), an occasional garnet, with rutile, and titanite. This rock has also been described 
by Mr. Speight (1910). With it is associated a heavy black foliated rock, in which hornblende 
is conspicuous in hand-specimens. In thin section this rock is seen to be mainly composed of 
brownish-green hornblende and a little plagioclase ; there are also present hypersthene, diallage, 
and some olivine. Dr. Marshall (1907) lias described this rock as a wehrlite. In the foliated 
diorite-gneiss there are basic segregations composed mainly of hornblende with usually a little 
muscovite, abundant epidote, and a few grains and needles of rutile. This is apparently the 
amphiboUte of Mr. Speight (1910). These gneissic rocks are intrusives, and all exhibit the 
effects of intense compressive stress. 

The Sounds Area. 

In 1905 Dr. P. Marshall* described the dunite and associated rocks discovered in 1863 
by Sir James Hector at Anita Bay, Milford Sound. Two years later he published a petro- 
logical description of the pink granite at Preservation Inlet, of gneisses from Dusky Somid and 
Milford Sound, and of hornblende-schists from Doubtful Sound and Thompson Sound. f In 1910 
Mr. R. Speight, J in a suggestive paper on the geology of the West Coast Sounds, published a 
description of granites, gneisses, diorites, and various schists from Preservation Inlet, Dusky Sound, 
Dagg's Sound, Thompson Sound, George Sound, Bligh Sound, Milford Sound, and McEannon's 
Pass. As the result of his petrological examinations he concluded that these rocks are in all 
probability not truly Archaean, but are metamorphosed igneous rocks, with perhaps occasional 
metamorphosed sedimentaries. This conclusion he based on the following evidence (^.c, p. 259) : — 

" (1.) The rocks never appear to exhibit that profound metamorphism which characterizes 
most Archaean rocks. 

" (2.) Frequently the only sign of metamorphism is the presence of strain and cata- 
clastic effects ; gradations in these can be traced from rocks practically with- 
out them to those which exhibit them to a marked degree. 

" (3.) The rocks do not show the effects of heat on their mineralogical character, as 
they would if they were truly Archaean and had experienced subcrustal changes. 
They belong to the upper or middle zone of Grubenmann. 

" (4.) Rutile is a prominent constituent of the rocks, and this suggests that some may 
be altered sedimentaries. Mica-schists, however, are seldom met with." 

* P. Maeshall: Magnesian Rocks at Milford Sound, Trana. N.Z. Inst., vol. 37, pp. 481-84, 1905. 

tP. Marshall: Geological Notes on the South-west of Otago, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 39. pp. 496-.503, 1907. 

X R. Speight: Notes on the Geology of the West Coast .Sounds, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 42, pp. 255-67, 1910. 


A wide band of diorite-gneiss, the " syenite " of McKay, extends from Preservation 
Inlet to Dusky Sound, where it is well exposed at Pickersgill Harbour and some of the small 
islands lying to the north of this. Both to the east and west of this rock, and apparently 
closely associated with it, there are parallel bands of true gneiss, the " granite -gneiss " of Sir 
James Hector. These intrusive gneisses occupy a large part of Resolution Island, and thence 
extend to the north. At Dusky Soimd this intrusive complex lies between the Maniototian 
schists to the east of the Acheron Passage and the slaty argilUtes of the Preservation Inlet 
Series to the west of Resolution Island. To the east, the Acheron Passage, which appears 
to be a down-faulted strip, or graben, forms approximately the boundary of the intrusives. 
To the west the argillites and mica-schists are much disturbed, and dip away from the 
intrusive — that is, seaward — at high angles. 




Miocene Oamaruian System — ■ 
Conditions of Deposition 

Character of Beds, and Thickness 
Mussel Beach Section 
Clifden Sections 
Blackniount Section 

Page I 

Miocene Oamaruian System — continued. 

49 I Economic Minerals 

50 i Pleistocene Deposits — 

50 j Orepuki Clays, Silts, and Sandy Beds 
til Mararoa Clays and Silt i . . 

51 High-level, Clacial, and Fluvioglacial Drifts 

52 and Moraines . . 

53 Recent Accumulations 






Conditions of Deposition. , 

During the Miocene submergence the greater part of Otago and Southland became covered 
with a thick sheet of fresh-water, deltaic, and marine sediments. The deltaic sediments accu- 
mulated faster than the rate of sinking ; and on their emergent surface there grew a dense 
vegetation, composed mainly of forest-trees (among which the pines were abundant), palms, ferns, 
and mosses. In the course of time, perhaps some thousand years or more, the growth and 
decay of the vegetation formed thick beds of peaty matter along the seaboard, which gradually 
receded as the sea slowly transgressed on the land. 

After the deposition of the fresh-water and deltaic beds, whicli, with their intercalated 
seams of lignite and brown coal, comprise what are called the Oamaruian coal-measures, the 
submergence became more rapid, and in consequence of this the coal-bearing beds became covered 
with clays, sands, and calcareous sediments. These last were composed mainly of Polyzoa 
and marine shells, and now form the thick beds of limestone seen at Cbfden, Sharpridge, Dipton, 
Castle Hill, Wmton, and other parts of Southland. 

The calcareous sediments were followed by marine sands and clays ; and these are the 
upper, or closing, members of the Middle Tertiary formation in Southland. 

At the close of the Miocene the New Zealand area consisted of an axial chain of low 
relief, here and there breached by sea-passages and fringed in places with small islands. 
The Miocene land area was smaller than the present, and surrounded by a warm, semi- 
tropical, shallow sea, on the floor of which rested the marginal sheet of sediments just 

With the advent of the Pliocene there began a series of crustal movements that was 
destined to bring about great geographical changes throughout the whole of New Zealand. The 
downward movement was arrested, and immediately followed by uplift. Tliis uplift of the 
land was general, but more rapid along the axial chains than towards the coasts. The 
surrounding seas were shallow, and as a first consequence of the uplift the sheet of Miocene 
sediments became dry land. The upward differential movement soon arched the region along 
the axial chains ; and this introduced enormous crustal stresses, which found relief by the 
formation of numerous faults and dislocations that traversed the base rocks on which the 
covering sheet of Miocene strata rested. 
4— Geol. BuU. No. 23. 


.Along the seaboard, where the upward movement was least, strips of the Miocene beds 
remained almost imdisturbed ; but towards the interior highlands, where the uplift was greatest, 
strips and patches of these strata became entangled in fault-troughs and along fault-planes. 
While this crustal dislocation was in progress subaerial denudation was extremely active. The 
Pliocene was a period of heavy rainfall, and it was not long till the weak, unconsolidated, 
newly uplifted Miocene beds were almost completely removed from the higher lands. It was 
only where they lay in protecting troughs or montane basins that they escaped destruction ; 
and even in these they were frequently tilted and crushed by the faultings that were the cause 
of their survival. 

In the differential Pliocene uplift which gave New Zealand its present form we have the 
explanation of the numerous coastal and valley strips, montane basins, and faulted patches 
of the Middle Tertiary coal-bearing formation that abound throughout the Dominion. 


The Tertiary coal-bearing formation extends from the shores of Te Waewae Bay northward 
along the floor of the Waiau Valley to Lake Te Anau. It forms the eastern shores of that 
lake till Welcome Point is reached, to the north of which it occupies both shores as far as 
Worsley Arm. In a distance of eighty miles this strip of Tertiaries ranges from two or three 
miles to twenty -four miles in width. From Mount Linton a band of the coal-measures extends 
eastwards through the gap between the Longwood Range and Takitimu Mountains to Nightcaps, 
forming the Ohai and Wairio coalfields. From Nightcaps the coal-measures extend to the 
south and east below the Aparima Plains. 

Character of Beds, and Thickness. 

The Middle Tertiary beds range from conglomerates and gritstones at the base of the 
series to limestones and marine clays at the top. Generally they may be divided into five 
groups of beds, and, except the basal conglomerate stage, all are fossiliferous. The highest 
stage, consisting of clays and sandy beds, contains a characteristic Awamoan fauna. The 
limestone lying below these beds is mainly composed of Polyzoa, but also contains many 
molluscs (mostly pectens) and brachiopods, among which Pachi/magas parki (Hutton) is common. 
In many places the limestone is glauconitic ; on the fossil evidence it should be placed in 
the Ototaran stage. 

The subdivision of the beds lying below the limestone is quite arbitrary. No attempt 
was made to make collections of fossils anywhere. Fossiliferous horizons are numerous, and 
some of them so stored with fossils that the making of an exhaustive collection would be the 
work of two years. In a few places examples of some of the larger molluscs were obtained 
for purposes of identification, and in other places a note was made of the fossils seen in place. 
A rich harvest awaits the collector at Clifden, Blue Cliff, and Mussel Beach. In this southern 
latitude there will probably be found many genera and species not recorded from Oamaru 
and farther north. No fauna with as old a facies as the Boitonian was seen anywhere in 

The most complete section of the series is that exposed between the Hump and Helmet 
Hill, to the south of Lake Hauroto. There we have a continuous succession from the basal 
conglomerate to- the base of the Hutchinsonian, showing a thickness of 2,000 ft. ; the thickness 
of the Awamoan beds overlying the limestone in the Lillburn Valley to the north-east is about 
400 ft. : thas the total thickness of the whole series in the south end of the Waiau basin is 
not less than 2,400 ft. 

In the Blackmount area, twenty-five miles farther north, there is a tremendous development 
of the conglomerates, gritstones, and sandstones, the total thickness of which cannot be less 
than 4,000 ft. 



At Blackmount and Sunnyside a great thickness of blue clays and limestones overlies the 
gritstones and conglomerates that compose Blackmount Ridge. Blue clays of unknown but 
considerable thickness appear to underlie the Blackmount Ridge beds. They are well seen 
in the Waiau-Borland section, where they apparently dip below the Blackmount Ridge beds. 
A powerful fault passes along the Waiau Valley, trending north and south, and possibly 
future investigation will show that these clays owe their present position to faulting. 

Mussel Beach Section. 

The lowest beds of the Middle Tertiary series are exposed on the coast at Mussel Beach, 
where, at the limestone caves half a mile north of the breakwater, they are seen in actual 
contact with the underlying hornblende-diorite which forms the base rock. 

The Tertiary beds do not rest on an even wave-cut platform, but on an uneven surface 
diversified with low rocky pinnacles and ridges. We have evidence that here, at least, geo- 
graphical change in the Early Miocene was so rapid that a broken rock-bound strand became 
suddenly submerged. 

The lowest bed of the Tertiary formation is a sandy conglomerate, which passes upward 
into a brown sandstone. On this sandstone there rests a band of thin-bedded limestone 18 ft. 
in thickness, and over the limestone there is a bed of coarse, calcareous, shelly gritstone 
ranging from 24 ft. to 30 ft. in thickness. The gritstone is mainly composed of small angular 
and semi-angular fragments of granite, gneiss, diorite, quartz, and hornblende crystals. The 
ancient sea-floor was so uneven that in places the limestone rests directly on the diorite 

North of the sandy bay near the breakwater the gritstone forms a wide platform just below 
high-water mark. Altogether for a distance of two himdred yards the outer edge of the platform 
is a straight wall that runs parallel with the strike, and slopes steeply towards the sea like 
an artificial sea-wall. The batter is steeper than the dip of the beds. 

Immediately north of the breakwater the gritstone strikes north and south (magnetic), and 
dips east at an angle of 20°. Generally the angle of dip ranges from 10° to 15°, and there 
are abrupt local variations of strike and angle of dip. For a short distance near the caves 
the angle of dip is 75°, but this is abnormal, and has apparently arisen from the collapse 
of a block of gritstone owing to the solution and removal of the underlying limestone. 

The fossils in the gritstone include cetacean bones, the teeth of a shark, crab-remains, 
corals (mostly FlabelUtm), Polyzoa, a large Balanus (often 2 in. in diameter), and numerous 
molluscs, among which were recognized Cucullcea alta, Cardium spatiosum, Pecten huUoni, Veneri- 
cardia difficilis, Gli/cymeris laticostata, G. globosa, Lima colorata, Limopsis, Area, Panopcea, Mactra, 
Venus, Mytilus, Ostrea, Anomia, Scalaria lyrata, Teredo keaphyi, Trochus or Imperator, and 
Denlalium. This fauna bears a curious resemblance to that of the sandy beds overlying the 
coal-measures at Wharekuri, in the Oamaru district. 

Two miles north of the breakwater, at the south end of Anchor Bay, the gritstone is 
overlain by fossihferous sandy beds and clays with limestone bands. At the south end of 
Anchor Bay the strike is N. 72° W., and the dip N.E. at angles ranging between 15° and 20°. 
Near the middle of the bay the beds are faulted, and tilted at high angles ; in places they are 
vertical. Farther north they are warped or bent along the strike, which in a distance of 
sixty-five yards changes from N.N.W. to S.W., the angle of dip being about 15°. In this 
short distance the bending along the strike exceeds 90°, and probably arises from faulting 
accompanied by crush. 

Clifden Sectio.vs. 

Fine sections of the Middle Tertiary strata are exposed in the high cliffs bordering the west 
bank of the Waiau River, to the north of the bridge at Clifden, and in the high escarpments on 
the east side of the river a quarter of a mile below the bridge. The beds range from Waiarckan 


to Awamoan. At the bridge the Hmestone crosses the river obliquely, and here its strike is 
N.E.-S.W. (mag.), and the dip N.W. at an angle of 18°. 

/7°-20" Ar /3' 




Yio. I. — Section alono Right Bank of Waiat' River, from Cmfden Bkidgk northwards. 
Horizontal scale, 400 ft. = 1 in. ; vertical scale, 150 ft. = 1 in. A. Bridge acioss Waiau River at Clifden. 

(1) Comjjact yellowish-grey polyzoan limestone, sanJy in lower jiart 

(2) Riisty-biown calcareous sandstone, gl.iuconitic 
(.3) Sandy clays ; fossils abundant 
(4) Thin- bedded sands and clays ; fossils few . . 
{')) Blue clay with Foraniinifera 
(()) Sandy clays, richly fossiliferous . . 

(7) Marly shelly .«ands, slightly glauconitic, fossiliferous 

(8) Sandy clays, fog.'-ilifei'ous 
(!)) Terrace gravels. 

These beds may be grouped as mider 

(1) Limestone 

(2) Calcareous sandstone 

(3) Sandy clays 

(4) Thiji-bedclcd sands and clays 
(.5) Blue clays 

(6) Sandy clays 

(7) Marly shelly sands 

(8) Sandy clays 


I 175 


Hutch insoni an. 

Bed (6) contains many fine examples of Ostrea wuellerstorfi, a large Pinna, Perna, Pachymagas 
pnrki, and pieces of carbonized wood. 

The river-cliff runs a little obliquely across the strike of the beds. The whole thickness of 
the limestone is not exposed in this section. In the high escarpment below the bridge the thick- 
ness is about 160 ft. 

Fio. 2. — Section from Caves Road, Half a Mile from Clifden Brilge South-east to Waiau River. 

A. Road to Caves. 

(1) Limestone. (2) Impure gritty limestone with Pachnmagas riarlci. (3) Grey calcareous sandy beds. (4) Sand- 
stones and clays underlain by shaly clays and sandj' beds with calcareous concretions and plant-remains. 

To the south-east, beds (4) change their dip to the north-west not far from the mouth of the 
Orawia River, which flows into the Waiau River between Clifden and Tuatapere. 

Blackmount Section. 

Blackmount Hill is a prominent ridge that presents a precipitous dip-slope towards Ligar 
Creek and a moderate slope to the Waiau River. It is composed of brown gritty sandstone and 
conglomerates, which dip about south-east at high angles. These beds are followed by a great 
thickness of blue crumbling clays, in which Ligar Creek has cut its course near Blackmount 



homestead. The clays contain a few bands of harder clay rock, the strike of which is N.-S. 
(mag.), and the dip east at an angle of 45°. 

Sloucknuywrvt J{tZZ 
Wctiazu River 



ZtgcLT CTd. 

45° 50° -00° 
Smiles >i 

ICifj. 3. — Section from Waiau River to Ligar Creek, One Mii.e below Blackmount Homestead. 
(1) Blue clays. (2) Gritt}' sandstones and conylonieratcs. (3) Blue cla3's 

At the upper end of the gorge near Digger's IIiLI there is a wide platform of rock, on the right 
side of the Waiau River, composed of alternations of well-bedded clays and sandstones, which 
strike at first N. 10° E. (mag.), and dip easterly at an angle of 45°. A few hundred yards farther 
down the river-bed the strike bends more to the east ; and at the big bend, where the clays 
and sandstones are interbedded with numerous bands of impure gritty limestone, the strike is 
N.E.--S.W. (true), and the dip south-east at angles ranging from 15° to 40°. Still farther 
down the river the calcareous beds are succeeded by the Awamoan clays and sandy beds. 

The Middle Tertiary strata in the Sunnyside-Blackmount area are so faulted and warped 
that it is difficult to arrive at a trustworthy estimate of their thickness. It is certain, however, 
that the total thickness rmis into many thousand feet. 


Along tlie walls of the Waiau Valley the Oamaruian strata are crushed and broken by the 
faults which boimd the valley, and present no definite structure ; but in the lower end of the 
valley, at some distance from the valley-walls, they are arranged as a flat syncline the axis of 
which runs N.E.-S.W., and lies between the mouth of the Orawia and Clifden. 

In the Chfden basin, which includes the lower Lillburii and lower Wairaki valleys, the strata 
form a saucer-shaped syncline. 

At the south end of Lake Mana])ouri the brown sandstones, gritstones, and conglomerates dip 
gently to the north-west and south-east. Near the head of Lake Te Anau, as seen in the small 
islands, they dip gently to the north, north-east, or north-west ; but a short distance from the 
shores they are sharply tilted along the ])lane of powerful faults, and on both sides of the lake 
rise to a height of 5,000 ft. or more on the slopes of the ranges. On the west side of the lake the 
Tertiary strata form conspicuous sharp-crested ridges with long steep dip-slopes, and on the east 
they crown some of the higher peaks of the Earl Mountains. 

Tr^cunhiltTv 'Mts . 

IS curl Mts. 

Leo IsZcbnd/ 
FoolU: I IcbuZt 


K 1 ^ rr)//es 

Fin 4. — Section from Franklin Mountains across Lake Te Anau to the Earl Mountain's. 

(I) Middle Teitiary sandstones, &c. ('!) Permo-Carboniferous argilliles and greyAvackes. (3) Diorites of Clinton 

River intrusive series. 


Economic Minerals. 

The Tertiary formation contains valuable deposits of clay and limestone, and thick scams 
of brown coal. Economically it is the most important rock-series in Southland. A description 
of some of the more important of these is given in Chapter VIII. 

Orepuki Clays, Silts, and Sandy Beds. 

From near Monkey Island, near Orepuki, to Rowallan Burn the shore of Te Waewae Bay 
is fringed with high cliils composed of clays, silts, and sandy beds, intercalated with seams of woody 
lignite ranging from a few inches to 5 ft. in thickness. In places they contain logs of drift timber 
partially carbonized. These beds arc present at Round Hill, and generally they do not extend 
inland more than two or three miles. They are a marginal deposit laid down in the old delta 
of the Waiau River. No marine organisms are known to occur in them. In the sea-cliffs at 
Orepuki they show a thickness of 100 ft., but their total thickness must be greater, as the bottom 
beds are not exposed. They lie unconformably on the Oamaruian Tertiaries, or on the diorites 
and gabbros that intrude the Longwood argillites and greywackes. The tree-trunks embedded 
in the sandy beds are only partially carbonized, and frequently the bark is still tough and 

The lowest sandy bed, where it rests on the bed-rock, as a rule contains scattered pebbles ; 
and a few small pebbles sometimes occur in some of the higher beds, but this is exceptional. 
Usually the series consists of well-bedded clays, silts, and fine sands, often showing current- 
bedding, only the lowest stratum being gravelly or pebbly. 

These Pleistocene beds contain gold ; and at one time a large number of alluvial claims were 
worked at Round Hill, on the sea-beaches between Orepuki and the mouth of the Waiau River, 
and along the courses of the small streams flowing into Te Waewae Bay, where a certain amount 
of secondary concentration had taken place. The gold occurs in fine flaky particles, and is every- 
where associated with grains of platinum. 

The minerals found with the gold and platinum in the alluvial concentrates are magnetite 
(which is abundant), specular iron, red garnets, zircons, and spinels. 

The platinum was most abundant at- Round Hill and at the mouth of the Waiau River. 
Generally, about 1 oz. of platinmn was obtained for every 100 oz. of gold. The association of 
the gold and j:)latinmn invests these deposits with a peculiar interest. The source of the 
gold is doubtless to be found in the gold-bearing veins which occur in the argilhtes and 
greywackes at the sources of the Orawia River, which rises on the west side of the Longwood 
Range and falls into the Waiau River two miles above Tuatapere. The platinum is probably 
derived from the gabbro intrusions in the Longwood Range drained by the Orepuki, Waimeamea, 
and Waihoaka streams. The occurrence of platinmn in gabbro and other basic rocks has been 
definitely determined in the Ural Mountains. Mr. L. S. Hundeshagen* has recorded the occur- 
rence of platimmi in Sumatra, in wollastonite which is associated with schists, granite, and 
augite-diorite or gabbro. 

The pleistocene lignitic silts and sandy beds occur at Round Hill at a height of 230 ft. 
above the sea. As the beds were evidently laid down at sea-level, their present elevated 
position is an evidence of uplift in quite recent times. At one time, not earher than the 
pleistocene, ridges of the Tertiary hmestones and sandstones formed liigh barriers across the 
Waiau Valley at Clifden, Digger's Hill, near Sunnyside, and at the end of Blackmount Hill. 
The waters of the Waiau River were ponded above these barriers, forming lake-basins that 
became partially filled with river-drift. When the last uphft of the land took place the 
notches in the barriers were cut down deep enough to permit the Waiau River to drain 
the basins, and terrace the gravels lying on the floor of the basins. By the blocking of the 

* Trans. In-U. Min. and Met. London, vol. 13, 1904. 


CUfden, Digger's, and Blackniount gorges with artificial barrages the ancient lakes could be 
recreated in the Waiau Valley, though of smaller dimensions than the Pleistocene lakes, as 
rain and glacier-ice have greatly reduced the crests of the ridges forming the walls of the 
gorges. These ancient lake-basins owed their existence to the tilting of the Tertiary strata 
in a direction running diagonally to the general north-and-south course of the Waiau Valley. 
The tilting accompanied the faulting which originated the Waiau rift-valley. 

Mararoa Clays and Silts. 

Along the north bank of the Mararoa River, to the east of the Key bridge, the river- 
cliffs are composed of blue clays and silts interbedded with a stratum of loosely compacted 
conglomerate ranging from 4 ft. to 12 ft. in thickness. The material composing this con- 
glomerate is mainly greywacke and quartzose pebbles, grit, and sand derived from the Living- 
stone and Takitimu mountains. Embedded in the conglomerate there occur the trunks and 
branches of trees now partially carbonized, and intercalated in the clays there are seams of 
impure lignite. The clays and associated beds dip towards the north-west at an angle of 
about 15°. Their visible thickness as exposed on the west bank of the Mararoa is about 
300 ft. They are overlain unconformably by a considerable thickness of fluvio-glacial drift, 
mainly composed of granite, gneiss, diorite, and quartz. To the south, in Princhester Creek, 
the Mararoa clay and silt beds rest unconformably on the Oamaruian coal-measures. 

These beds are of fresh-water origin. They were evidently deposited on the floor of the 
Late Pliocene or Early Pleistocene lake that occupied the Mararoa basin. The ancient Mararoa 
Lake included Lake Te Anau and Lake Manapouri, and extended down the Waiau Valley to 
RedcUfi Creek. They were tilted by movement along the great Waiau fault, probably before 
the period of maximum refrigeration in the Middle Pleistocene. 

High-level, Glacial, and Fluvio-glacial Drifts and Moraines. 

High-level gravels occur as terraces or scattered deposits up to a height of 800 ft. above 
the bed of the Waiau River from Clifden north to Te Anau. In the Clifden basin they are 
purely fluviatilo ; in the Sunnyside basin, i)artly fluviatile and partly fluvio-glacial ; and in the 
Manapouri - Te Anau ba.sin, which has already been referred to as the Mararoa basin, mainly 
fluvio-glacial. At the south end of Lake Manapouri, at the end of Lake Monowaj, in the 
area separating Lake Hauroto and the Lillburn River, and at the lower end of Lake Ada there 
are great accumulations of glacial material of the fluvio-morainic type — that is, thfey are composed 
of tumbled blocks of rock mingled with a large proportion of fluviatile drift. The greatest 
development of the fluvio-glacial drifts is in the ancient Mararoa basin, where, as in the 
Ramparts, they form ridges that rise to an elevation of 1,380 ft. above the sea, or 100 ft. 
above the present level of Lake Te Anau. 

Scattered throughout the drifts in the Mararoa basin there are numerous ice-borne ciratics 
of gneiss, granite, or diorite, derived from the moxmtains on the west side of Lake Manapouri 
and Lake Te Anau. 

Among other evidences of intense Pleistocene glaciation arc the smooth, rounded, and 
hummocky contours presented by many of the ridges and spurs of the main divide ; the deep, 
canon-like, flat-bottomed, U-shaped valleys, varied only by sudden steps, and ending abruptly 
in the heart of the main chain as a cul-de-sac or cirque heinm?d by sheer walls that are in some 
cases over 2,000 ft. high; hanging- valleys, of which those at the Stirling and Bowen falls are fine 
examples ; and fine ice-striated surfaces. 

On the south-west shore of Circle Cove, at the south end of Lake Manapouri, there occurs 
the largest and finest stretch of ice-grooved rock-surface in New Zealand. It was discovered 
by Mr. J. M. Fowler, of Invercargill, and Mr. Guy Murrell, of Manapouri, in May, 1919. 
The striated rock is an intensely hard, granitic-looking, gritty, quartzose Tertiary sandstone. 
The striated surface runs parallel with the shore, and is about a hundred and fifty yards long 


and twenty yards wide. The full extent of the ice-worn rock is not exposed to view, as the 
striated surface dip-; b^'low water-level on one side and is covered with a boulder drift on the 
landward side and at the ends. The strike of the ice-grooves is about N. 80° W. (mag.). 
A detailed description of the discovery will be found in the Transactions of the New Zealand 


These include the sandhills and storm-beaches on the coast between the mouth of the 
Waiau River and Blue Cliff, the alluvial flats of the lower Clinton and Arthur valleys, and 
the deltaic accumulations at the mouth of the Arthur, Cleddau, and other rivers flowing into 
the Sounds and arms of the lakes. 

A noticeable feature of the glaciated country lying to the west of the Waiau Valley is 
the absence of residual clays. The deposits of residual clays are xmimportant till the low- 
lying areas in the neighbourhood of Chfden and Tuatapere are reached. 

At the upper end of Lake Ada there is a submerged forest. The submergence is not due 
to land-movement, but has arisen from the consolidation and consequent shrinking of the fine 
deltaic sediments on wliich the forest grew. There is evidence of submergence from the same 
cause in the deltaic areas along the shores of Lake Hauroto. 

*J. M. FowLEf! On an lee-stiiated Eock-surface on the Shore of Circle Cove, Lake Manapouri, Trans. 
N.Z. InM., vol. 63 175, 1921. 




Wairio Coalfield — 

Coal-measures and Coal-seams 
Structure of Coal-measures 

Quested's Coal Area 

Ohai Coalfield 
Borehole Records 


Ohai Coalfield — contivned. 



Analyses of Ohai Coals 

. . 64 


Amount of Available Coal. . 

.. 64 


Other Potential Coal Areas . . 

.. 64 


Use of Pulverized Coal 

.. 65 


Prospects of an Oil-discovery 

.. 66 


Coal-measures and Coal-seams. 

The Middle Tertiary coal-measures underlie the Oreti Plain. At Nightcaps they abut against 
the Palaeozoic base rock, and thence extend westward, through the narrow gap separating the 
Longwood Range and Takitimu Mountains, to the Waiau Valley. 

The Nightcaps, Wairio, Quested's, Ohai, and Mount Linton fields are mining centres in the 
same series of coal-measures. Generally the coal-measures are characterized by a great thickness 
of clayey beds. 

The succession of the measures in the Wairio coal-area is — • 

(1) Bluish-grey clays. 

(2) Ro.siu coal-seam, 4 ft. to 13 ft. thick, where it is usually split with seam of shaly clay. 

(3) Shfily clays, sandy clays, and sands, with thin bauds of ironst jne and shaly coul. 

(4) Soft white sandstone, 9 ft to 30 ft. 

(5) '•' Big s"am " of coal, 9ft. to 20ft. 

(6) Fireclay, 3 ft. 

(7) Sc^am of impure coal (lignite), 6in. to 24 in. 
(8; Soft grey sandst')ne, 4 ft. to 5 ft. 

(9) S'>amof coal, 2 ft. to 5 ft. 
(10) Clays with binds of limonitic sandstone, 40ft. to 300ft 

As at Nightcaps to the east and Ohai to the west, there are two workable seams in the 
Moretown-Wairio area — a lower seam of good brown coal locally called the " big seam," and an 
upper seam called the "rosin seam." The lower seam, in the Wairio area, ranges from 9ft. to 
20 ft. in thickness, and the rosin seam from 4 ft. to 13 ft. The lower seam is a hard brown coal 
of good quality ; and the rosin seam is a bright friable coal that everywhere contains a large amount 
of ambrite, or fossil resin, disseminated throughout the whole thickness as large and small grains 
and fragments, ranging from the size of a pea to that of a walnut. 

Structure of Coal-measures. 

The coal-measures at Wairio dip towards the south-west at low angles, and rise towards 
Quested's to the north-east, where they abut against the Pala;ozoic base rock along the plane of 
a fault that strikes N.W.-S.E. and approximately forms the boundary of the coal-measures from 
Quested's to the Ohai River. 

Between Nightcaps and Ohai denudation has removed the greater part of the coal-measures 
to the north and north-east of FLsh Creek, and the patches that still remam on the ridges are 
covered with only a thin layer of fireclay. In some places the coal-measures overlying the upper 
seam of coal have been completely removed. In this case the coal Ls overlain directly by the 
partially consolidated fluviatile high-level gravels that form the White Range. The arrangement 


of till' Morotown coal-measures and coal-seams, and their relationship to Quested's coal area, are 
.shown in fig. 5. 

TisJv Ch 

Whtte 'Range 

Questeds Fault 

|<- y // m'f/es 

Fig. 5. — Section fkoji Moketown across WriiTE Range to Quested's. 
(1) Palaeozoic argillJtes and greywackes. (2) Coal-measures with two seams of coal. (3) Pleistocene gravels. 

The seams are displaced by a system of faults running parallel with the strike, and by a 
second system of dip-faults. 

The amount of coal remaining unworked to the rise in the Moretown area of the Wairio 
coalfield is small, and probably does not exceed 100,000 tons altogether. The coal-measures and 
seams dip below the downs to the south-west of Fish Creek. The amount of coal existing to the 
dip can only be ascertained by boring. Whatever coal does occur in this direction will be below 

The only large block of coal now remaining on this field to the rise exists at Mossbank No. 2. 
A good seam of coal has been uncovered on this jJroperty, but the amount of development carried 
out is insufficient to enable a trustworthy estimate to be made of the quantity of coal that may 
be available. Nevertheless, it is probable that several himdreds of thousands of tons of coal may 
be profitably mined. 

Like all brown coals, the Wairio coals vary considerably in composition, both throughout the 
thickness of the seams and in lateral extension. The analyses of what may be regarded as 
approximately representative samples are given below : — 

Fixed carbon 
Volatile hydrocarbons 
Ash . . 

Sulphur (per cent.) 

P>ig Seam. 





Rosin Seam. 








This coal-bearing area lies in the basin to the north-east of White Range. The relationship 
of the coal-measures and their two seams of coal — the " big seam " and the '" rosin seam " — to 
the Wairio coal-measures and seams is shown in fig. 5. To the north-east the Tertiary rocks are 
bounded by a fault ; and to the south-west they dip below the Pleistocene gravels that form the 
White Range. To what distance the seams continue below the gravels is unknown. To the 
north-east Quested's fault runs obliquely across the strike of the coal-measures, and in conse- 
quence the different members of that series abut successively against the base rock. At Quested's 
opencast the " rosin seam " lies almost against the bed-rock ; to the south-east — that is, towards 
Nightcaps — the underlying members in succession come against the base rock. 

To the south-west of the place where the " rosin seam " crops out, near the base rock, the 
" big seam " should be found underfoot — that is, if it escaped destruction by the ancient river 
which deposited the White Range gravels. 


At Quested's the " rosin seam " is about 12 ft. in thickness at the outcrop, 
a sample from this seam by the Dominion Analyst gave the following results : — 

Fixed carbon 

Volatile hydrocarbons 


Ash .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 

Sulphur (per cent.) 

An analysis of 








At the Wairaki Mine, on the south side of the Ohai River, the coal-seams dip to the 
south-west at an angle of about 8°, and on the north side of the river the Moimt Linton scams 
dip towards the west at an angle of 5°. In a distance of a few hundred yards the strike 
changes from north-west to north-east. This peculiar structure has been brought about by 
the intersection of two systems of faults. At Clapp's coal-mine, situated about half a mile 
to the north-east of Mount Linton, the dip of the coal is north-west at an angle of 45°. At 
this place the coal-measures abut against the Palaeozoic bed-rock, as showTi in fig. 6. 

Clapp's l/[-un/e 


Isuntoro Fcuwbb 

Fig. 6.— Section at Cl/UU-'s opencast 
(1) Palaeozoic bed-luck. (2) Gritty sandstones. (3) IJluc clay. (+) Clapp's coal-seam. 

At Mossbank No. 1 there is a seam of good coal 40 ft. thick. It i.s exfjoscd in the 
bottom of the valley, and is being worked as an open quarry close to the Ohai Stream. 
The over-burden consists of Recent gravels and clays. The dip of the seam, as has been 
shown by Mr. Onglcy,* is about south-west at an angle of about 11°. In consequence of 
faulting. Pleistocene denudation, and small amount of development work, it is impossible to 
estimate the amount of coal available in this block. To the rise, or north-east, the seam is 
not more than four hundred or five hundred yards from the base rock, and even in that distance 
there is some evidence of faulting. Towards the south-west the dip, if continued, would carry 
the Mossbank seam below the Wairaki seam, which dips in the same direction and crops out 
at the foot of the terrace on the south side of the river-flat. 

The Wairaki seam is about 10 ft. in thickness, and is exposed at two places in the face 
of the terrace. This terrace looks like a,rp, and future development may prove that 
the Mo.ssbank " big seam " is the Wairaki seam. The latter is traversed by four parallel 
dip-faults that upstep the seam to the north-west a height of 120 ft. in a distance of half a mile. 

At the Mount Linton Mine, half a mile farther down the valley, the present workings 
are in the lower 23 ft. seam, which dips to the westward at an angle of 5°. 

The upper 10 ft. seam is separated from the lower by a thin band of " fireclay." From 
the Linton fault to the east side of the hill designated Trig. U, a distance of half a mile, 

* M. Onglby: AnnrRep. Geol. Surv. Branch, C.-2b, p. 8, 1917. 


towards the rise, this scam and the overlying " rosin seam " have been completely destroyed 
by fire. The removal of the coal by burning has allowed the ground overlying the seam to 
cave in or collapse, and the heat of the burning coal has baked the overlying laminated 
clays into rich red-coloured tiles. In places the clays have been burnt into masses of 
excessively hard clinker. The burnt clays, the wide expanse of narrow ridges and caved-in 
ground, diversified by pinnacles of clinkered clay, form a weird landscape unlike any other 
in New Zealand, and strikingly reminiscent of some parts of the Rotorua volcanic regions. 
The area of burnt ground, as determined by the surface caving, is about 160 acres. If the 
average thickness of the " rosin seam " be taken at 10 ft., the estimated quantity of valuable 
coal destroyed by fire is about 4,000,000 tons. 

The thin bed of fireclay separating the upper seam prevented the fire spreading to the lower 
seam at the present Moimt Linton workings, but there is a possibility that towards Trig. U the 
fixe may have reached the lower seam. Even if the fire did not actually reach the " big 
seam," the management should be prepared to find that the upper part of the seam has been 
cindered by the heat over a considerable area lying to the west of the Linton fault. Besides 
this, the great depth of the caving has destroyed the continuity of the natural roof-cover, and 
this will increase the cost of mining. To the dip side of the opencast the seams are, so far 
as known, practically unaffected by the fire, and remain intact. 

The date of the fire is unknown. The Maoris of Southland have no traditions relating to 
it ; probably they never knew of it. The pinnacles of clinkered clay stand 6 ft. or 8 ft. above 
the general surface, and this circumstance would tend to show that considerable denudation has 
taken place since the burning of the seam. 

The origin of the fire is also unknown. It may possibly have been started by a burning 
forest fired by lightning, or by spontaneous combustion traceable to the crush and heating arising 
from faulting. But these are only surmises. 

About four hundred yards east of the Mount Linton opencast, at the same level and to the 
north of the tram-line, there is an outcrop of a large seam of bro^vn coal broken by a layer of fire- 
clay. This seam has not been fully disclosed by piospccting-work, but, so far as can be seen, 
it appears to be altogether about 20 ft. thick. It dips towards the north-west at a low angle 
— that is, towards the Mount Linton opencast — and for that reason Mr. T. Smith, of Moretown, 
the former owner of this property, has expressed the view that it is a second " big seam " under- 
lying the Mount Lmton seam. It should, however, be noted that it occupies the same 
relative position to the burnt " rosin seam " as does the Mount Linton scam ; and for that 
reason the author favours the view that it is a down-faulted part of the Mount Linton 

At the Mount Linton opencast workings a strike-fault follows the gully or depression drained 
by the small stream which flows across the outcrop of the coal. According to Mr. Ongley the 
" rosin seam " crops out on the west side of the depression. 

The arrangement of the coal-measures and contained seams of coal is shown in fig. 7. 

Mt.LinJjOTh Mvne THg. V. Mdge 

Cojved, grouThcb !_^^ 

JjintonTax/lt \ Tcuult 

Fig. 7. — Section from Mount Linton Opencast to Trig. U Ridge — Oblique to Strike. 

h. Burnt outcrops of " rosm seam." 


At the Wairaki Mine the " big seam " possesses the south-west dip of the Mossbank No. 2 
and Wairio seams. How far the seam will live to the dip and extend along the strike is 
unknown at present. If no large faults are encountered it is probable that a large area of 
coal may be developed towards the dip, lying below water-level. 

At the old Mount Linton pit, situated on the north bank of the Ohai River, about three 
and a half miles down the valley from the present Mount Linton Mine, the " big seam " 
shows a thickness of about 20 ft. of coal. The pit was subject to the influx of water from 
the Ohai River, and ten years ago work at this place was abandoned. 

In the bed of a small stream about a mile west of Mount Linton Mine black shaly clays 
contain casts of a fresh-water mussel in abundance [Diplodon injlatus (Hutt.) ). These (;Iays 
appear to overlie the " rosin seam." 

Borehole Records. 

In 1910 Mr. A. W. Rodger prospected the coal-measures lying below the Ohai Flat by a 
chain of twenty-four boreholes, spaced from two hundred to three hundred yards apart, No. 1 bore 
being situated opposite the Wairaki Mine and No. 24 near Birchwood Dairy Factory. The 
borehole records prove («) that the coal-measures maintain the Mount Linton westerly dip 
for a distance of three miles, (6) that two workable seams of coal exist in the valley for a 
distiince of a mile and a half from Mount Linton, and (c) that beyond this the coal 
thins out rapidly towards the dip. The borehole results are placed on record for future 
reference : — 

Bore No. J. 


Bore No. 4. 


Recent gravels . . 


Recent gravel . . 


White clay 


Seam of coal . . 


Blue pipeclay . . 




Seam of coal . . 


Seam of coal 


Sandstones and clays 

. 20 

Black shaly clay (bat) . 


Clay and sandstone 


Total depth . . 


Seam of coal . . 





Conglomerate . 


Bore No. 2. 



Recent gravel . . 


Conglomerate . 


Seam of coal . . 




Total depth . . . . . . 154 








Seam of coal 




Hard sandstone and conglomerate 


Bore No. 5. 

Total depth . . 


Recent gravel . 
Seam of coal . 


. 25 

Bore No. 3. 



Recent gravel . . 



. 10 








Seam of coal . 


Seam of coal . . 






Seam of coal . 


Seam of coal . . 




Black shaly clay (bat) . . 

. 33 

Conglomerate . 


Total depth . . 

. 86 


1 depth . 


. 90 


Bore No. 6. 

Recent gr.avel 


Seam of coal 

Black shaly clay 




Seam of coal 



Scam of coal 




Blue clay 

Total depth . 

Bore No. 7. 

Recent gravel 



Black shaly claj- 

Seam of coal 


Seam of coal 


Total depth 

Bore No. 8. 

Recent gravel 
Seam of coal 
Seam of coal 

Total depth 

Bore No. 9. 

Recent gravel 


Seam of coal 



Seam of coal 


Total depth 

Bore No. 10. 

Recent gravel 




Seam of coal 


Blue clay 

Total depth 


Bore No. 11. 



Recent gravel . . . . . . . . 6 








Seam of coal . . 






Blue clay 

. 40 




Total depth . . . . . . 80 

Bore No. 12. 


Recent gravel . . 




. 21 


Hard sandstone 







. 12 




Seam of coal . . 
Blue clay 
Seam of coal . . 







Total depth . . . . . . 80 


Bore No. 13. 


Recent gravel . . 







. 20 


Blue clay 

. 36 


. 10 






Seam of coal . . 


Blue clay 

. 22 

Seam of coal . . 


Blue clay 



Total depth . . . . . . 141 


Bore No. 14. 


Recent gravel . . . . . . . . 6 





Black shaly clay 



Seam of coal . . 



Black shaly clay 

. 14 


Seam of coal . . 



Black shaly clay 



Seam of coal . . 



Black shaly clay 

. 31 


Seam of coal . . 

. 10 


Dark-grey clay 


Total depth . . . . . . 92 


Bore No. 16. 


Recent gravel . . 

. 15 



. 30 



. 25 



. 15 


Black shaly clay 






Total depth . 


. 100 


Bore No. 



Bore No. 22. 

Recent gravel . . 


Recent clay and gravel . . 


.. 85 


Seam of coal . . 




White clay 



Black shaly claj- 

Seam of coal . . 

Total depth . . 


.. 100 


Bore No. 



Recent gravel . . 

.. 10 



.. 30 


Seam of coal . . 


Sandstone with gas 


.. 10 

Quartz rock 


.. 26 

Consolidated sand 

Seam of coal . . 


Sandstone with gas 



Claystone with fireclay . . 

Conglomerate . . 


Seam of coal with gas . . 

Fireclay, white 

Total depth . . 

.. 100 


Bore No. 


Cemented sand 

Recent gravel . . 





. . 125 

Dark fireclay . . 
Seam of good coal 

Total depth . . 

. . 135 

Fireclays with coaly matter 
Quartz rock 

Bore No. 



Recent gravel . . 


Seam of coal . . 



.. 91 

Blue clay 

Total depth . . 


.. 100 

Total depth . . 

Bore No. 


Recent grave] . . 




Scam of coal . . 


Blue clay 

.. 45 

Bore No. 23 (at Dairy 1 


.. 10 

Recent gravel . . 

Blue clay 


Blue clays 

Total depth . . 

.. 118 

Total depth . . 

Bore No 


Recent gravel . . 

.. 10 



Seam of coal . . 


Blue clay 

.. 23 

Bore No. 24. 


.. 30 

Recent gravel . . 


.. 42 

Blue clays 

Total depth . . 

.. 114 

Total depth . . 






















Borehole No. 22, from which there was an emission 
the Ohai Flat at the junction of the Ohai Valley Road 
with the main Birchwood Road. Two samples of the 
Macindoe with the following results : — 


Carbon monoxide 

Carbon dioxide . . 




of inflammable gas, is situated on 
and the road connecting that road 
gas were analysed by Mr. G. D. 

No. 1. 

No. 2. 
















Analyses of Ohai Coals. 

A, Mossbank No. 1, 40 ft. seam; B, Wairaki scam; C, Mount Linton "big seam"; D, Clapp's 

"big seam," 27ft. 

Fixed carbon . . 
Volatile hydrocarbons 
Water .. 

Sulphur (per cent.) 

A, by Otago School of Mines ; B, C, D, by Dominion Analyst. 





























Amount of Available Coal. 

Apart from the coal destroyed by fire, the total amount of coal contained in the 
different blocks in the Ohai basin, as estimated from the existing outcrops, coal-workings, and 
boreholes, probably exceeds 4,000,000 tons. Of this amount 60 per cent., or 2,400,000 tons, 
should be profitably mined when the field is linked up with the Nightcaps-Invercargill Railway. 


Outcrops of coal have been found on the east side of the Waiau Valley at Loudon Hill, 
head of Taylor's Creek, near Redcliff Creek, near Whare Creek, at the source of Elm-tree 
Creek, at Priachester Creek, on the bank of Upukerora Creek, and on the shore of Lake 
Te Anau near Leo Island. In other places pieces of coal have been found in the bed of the 
stream draining the Hump, to the west of Blue Cliff ; in the Iris Bum, which flows into 
Lake Manapouri ; and in the streams draining the areas occupied by the coal-measures on 
the west side of Lake Te Anau. 

At Princhester Creek and Upukerora the coal has been mined for many years by open 
faces for local requirements. Elsewhere no development work has been attempted, on account 
of the great distance from a market. 

At Princhester Creek there are two seams of coal faulted against the red argillites of the 
Takitimu Palaeozoic series. The lower seam is 4 ft. thick, and the upper, the " rosin seam," 
6 ft. thick. These seams are separated by 2 ft. of hard shaly fireclay. The upper seam is 
overlain by a bed of blue clay. Both seams are crushed, and the blocks of available coal 
are very small. 

The composition of the " rosin seam " is shown by the following analysis made in the 
Dominion Laboratory : — 

Fixed carbon 
Volatile hydrocarbons 


Sulphur (per cent.) . 







The Upukerora fuel is a superior lignite. It occurs as a 10 ft. seam in clays that appear 
to belong to a higher horizon than the coal-measures at Princhester Creek. 


Dr. Maclaurin, Dominion Analyst, reports that a sample of this coal submitted to him 
for analysis gave the following results : — 

Fixed carbon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-70 

Volatile hydrocarbons . . . . . . . . . . . . 39-85 

Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-80 

Ash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-65 


Sulphur (per cent.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0-22 

The coals cropping out on the east side of the Waiau Valley are generally crushed and 
faulted. Perhaps the most promising coal area is that situated at the head of Deep Creek, 
a tributary of Grassy Creek. Two seams crop out on the face of Flagstaff Hill, to the north- 
west of Loudon Hill. One of these is the " rosin seam " of Ohai. A sample from this seam 
was analysed at the Otago University with the following results : — 

Fixed carbon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34-50 

Volatile hydrocarbons . . . . . . . . . . . . 38-60 

Water " . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-60 

Ash .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 8-30 


Sulphur (per cent.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-51 

The second seam, though inferior in quality, probably represents the lower scam as seen at 
Ohai and Wairio. An outcrop sample liad the following composition : — 

Fixed carbon .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 32-60 

Volatile hydrocarbons . . . . . . . . . . .. 35-10 

Water .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 18-10 

Ash .. .. .. .. .. 14-20 

Sulphur (per cent.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-43 

The coal-outcrops in tliis area should be opened out to determine the probable extent of 
the seams. 


The mining of all coals is attended with the production of a large proportion of small 
coal and coal-dust. Generally, the loss incurred in the mining of brown coals is higher than 
with high-grade coals. The high and increasing cost of coal has directed renewed attention 
to the utihzing of waste coal in the pidverized form. 

For many years pulverized coal has been used in connection with the Portland-cement 
industry. The revolving cyUndrical calciners utilize the heat to great advantage, as the long 
flame, so readily produced by the combustion of pulverized coal, is under better control than 
grate combustion. The utilization of pulverized coal has been taken up energetically in 
America, and many systems have been devised for the use of this form of fuel for industrial 
heating. It has been shown that low-grade fuels such as brown coal and lignite may be 
burned efficiently, regardless of the proportion of ash, sulphur, or other impurities. Pulverized 
coal possesses semi-fluid properties, and may be transferred through pipes to scattered industrial 
furnaces by (a) screw conveyers, (6) compressed air, or (c) in suspension in a current of air. 

In practice the fuel is injected into the furnace in a finely divided state, and in its 
passage to the furnace is mixed with the proper volume of air, which may or may not have 
been previously heated. In the furnace the volatile gases are immediately driven off ; and for 

5— Geol. Bull. No. 23. 


the combustion of these and the remaining particles of carbon the requisite oxygen is 
furnished by the accompanying current of air. The processes of disintegration and combustion 
are so rapid that a high temperature is maintained. The alternating high temperatures and 
cooling that are inseparable from grate firing are avoided. 

To obtain the fuel in a finely divided state the coal is crushed, dried, and pulverized. 
It is crushed in a breaker, dried in a drier at a temperature not exceeding 200° C, and then 
conveyed to the grinder. At some point between the drier and grinding-mill there is placed 
a magnetic separator to withdraw any iron that may be present. 

The cost of pulverizing decreases rapidly as the capacity of the plant increases. American 
engineers claim that a great economy of fuel-cost is obtained by the use of pidverized coal. 

Besides its utilization in the manufacture of cement, pulverized coal may be employed in 
various metallurgical processes, for steam-raising in stationary boilers, and in locomotives. In 
the future the most promising field for the use of pulverized fuel will be found in the 
generation of electric energy at the coal-mine for distribution to industrial centres. 

Unlike forests, coal-seams when exhausted cannot be renewed. To conserve our coal 
resources by the prevention of wasteful methods of mining, and to obtain the highest efficiency 
from the fuels used for industrial purposes, are concerns of national importance. 


At Clifden the Tertiary strata dip north-west, and at the mouth of the Orawia River south- 
east. The axis of the anticline lies midway between Clifden and the mouth of the Orawia. 
The lower members of the series, comprising alternating beds of limestones, clays, and sandstone, are 
of great thickness, and contain the remains of marine organisms in abundance. If an oil-pool 
exists anywhere in western Southland it will be found in this area. The structure, character 
of strata, and relationship to the old shore-hne are favourable for the occurrence of oil, and 
would justify boring on the Waiau Flat midway between Tuatapere and Chfden. There is 
always the possibility that, even if no oil is struck, a good seam of coal or oil-shale may be 

A great thickness of Middle Tertiary strata underlies the Oreti plains, dipping gently seaward 
as a flat monocUnal. Here also there may exist pools of oil or accumulations of gas in profitable 
amount. The production of gasolene — a valuable motor spirit — from natural gas is a large and 
flourishing industry in the United States of America. One thousand cubic feet of so-called " wet " 
gas yields a pint or more of gasolene. In 1920 the total production amounted to 70,000,000 gallons. 

/I, „..^.' .'iullrhn .V..'.f. Wfsi.rn S„uthl.i„il .Sou'hl.uui .,,..i r,....l I h^ , ■....•,.. Suuthhtml L<,n,l /Ji^ftui 

Jtcod* ahofm I/au — ~- 

Trigvn^im,tt^\eaL StatUn* ,f n- Oi*f<' 

Kttqt* ofBuah f, „ _ '*<Sv>»* 

SwtUTyj ____»,_ — t»- ^^* 

H^al«-/Ua£M „ rt_ — **-— 

KaUmaym -,«__„_ ■ »i 

Shinfty JUst.botindajy ^ „ _ _.__ 

j^ j> ^ M ^ J M' A 




Topography From Lands and' Sia~ffy Dep^ tAjtXo^rxjphs . 
Gtoltyj ty Jamra Pocrk.F.G.S. 

I CS560 

— fUfirtoc* to G*olo 6 ifr«l Coionri mnd Si gni - 


OAMARUIAN ). I Con«)»m.r.l,., i.nd.lon.s , .h.1 

' I Bnd fireclay* with tcamt of 

ilet .blue da^i. Iime&tonea) 
brown cool . I 

Iframm fry QEHarriM. f9Z/. 

-CARBONlFEROUe (?) i Sendetone. .grej^^^J^ -nd .r^in.f will, b.nd, of j 

(MAITAt SERIES) I aphnnilic brfccia end red JMp«roid argiJIite > 

D>ke of Augite-fV)rphyrU*. 
CoaI -outcrops 

Miocrne |inne»ton«.. 

Area of burnt coal 






Classification of Clays 

Percentage Range of Clay Constituents 

Residual Clays 

Transported Clays 

Marly Clays of the Sunnyside - Blackinount 
Basin, Waiau \'alley 

Clays of Clifden-Jjillburn Basin 



Clays — CO lit in it cd. 

Clays of Mararoa Basin 
Clays of Wairio-Nighteaps Area 
Proportion of Clay Substam'e 
High-temperature Tests of Clays 
Birchwood Clays . . 

Ceiiieats . . 

Econoniics of Cement-manufacture 





The Tertiary limestones overlying the coal-measures form high ridgos with steep escarpments 
at Clifdcn, and between the village of Feldwick and Sharpridge to the north. The limestones of 
the same age at Hehnet Hill, Digger's Hill, and elsewhere in the Waiau Valley are generally too 
impure to be of economic importance. 

The Chfden limestone is of vast extent and of good, though not high, grade. It is easily 
accessible, and is situated not more than eight or t<m miles from the rail-head at Tuatapere. At 
the present time it is being mined and pulverized for agricultural purposes at a quarry less than a 
mile from Clifden. 

Samples selected at various places between Clifden Bridge and the Waiau Caves show that the 
limestone varies considerably in quality, both vertically and horizontally. The calcium-carbonate 
content ranges from 75-6 to 93-5 per cent. An average sample of the pulverized limestone, repre- 
senting the average of a face 40 ft. high, was analysed at the Dominion Laboratory with the 
following results :— 

Analysis of Pulverized Limestone from Clifden Quarry. 

Silica (SiOJ 

Alumina (AlgOj; 

Ferric oxide (Fe2 

Calcium carbonate (CaCOj) (estimated by difference) 

Magnesia (MgO) 

Phosphoric anhydride (P^Og) 




The analyses of a series of samples obtained from the limestone ridge on which Trig. G is 
situated are given below. No. 1 is from the rock shelter on the right side of the road, half a 
mile from Clifden Bridge, and Nos. 2 to 8 from the ridge leading up to Trig. G. 



Ferric oxide 

Calcium carbonate 

Magnesium carbonate 

Organic matter and water 

























































100-0 100-0 100-0 1000 100-0 100-0 100-0 100-0 


It is difficult to obtain samples by surface chipping that will represent the average compo- 
sition of the rock when broken in bulk. Probably the sample of pulverized limestone approximates 
the average composition more nearly than the mean of the eight samples quoted above. 

In a valuable memoir on " The Limestone and Phosphate Resources of New Zealand " 
Mr. P. G. Morgan,* Director of the Geological Survey, quotes from the Official Record of the New 
Zealand and South Seas Exhibition, Dunedin, 1890-91, the results of nine analyses of limestones 
from Merrivale that were exhibited as building-stones. As the Merrivale Settlement includes the 
limestone area at Clifden, the samples were doubtless obtained in that neighbourhood. The 
calcium-carbonate content of these samples was as follows : No. 1, 89-0 per cent. ; No. 2, 87-0 ; 
No. 3, 86-0; No. i, 74-0 ; No. 5, 95-0; No. 6, 91-0; No. 7, 74-5; No. 8, 81-0; No. 9, 92-2. 

There is a large body of limestone at Sharpridge, but the average calcium-carbonate content 
is lower than that of the Clifden limestone. 

A sample of limestone collected by Mr. R. Donnelly, of Wairio, from the small patch of lime- 
stone at the base of Twinlaw Peak, and about three miles from Moretown, was analysed by the 
Dominion Analyst with the following results : — 

Silica (SiOa) 


Alumina (AljOj) 


Iron oxide (FcgOg) . . 


Magnesia (MgO) 


Phosphorus anhydride (PgO.) 


Calcium carbonate (CaCOj) (by difference) 

. . 97-48 


Classification of Clays. 

Geologically, clays may be classified according to their origin or chemical composition ; 
technologically, they are grouped according to their uses. Genetically, all clays fall into two great 
groups : (1) Residual clays ; (2) transported clays. 

Residual clays are those formed by the decomposition of rocks in place. The decomposition 
may be brought about by gases, steam, or heated waters given off by igneous intrusions, or by 
rain, carbonic-acid gas, frost, or changing temperature, that, singly or together, crumble and dis- 
integrate the surfaces of rocks exposed to the atmosphere. 

Clays of this type are formed from the decomposition of all kinds of igneous and sedimentary 
rocks containing silicate minerals, and in consequence show a wide range in composition and 
physical properties. 

The kaolin, or china, white-burning clays are derived from the decomposition of granites, 
pegmatites, quartz-porphyries, and gneisses in which the feldspar constituent contains practically 
no iron, and is easily broken up by steam or waters charged with carbonic acid. The residual 
clays of basic and semi-basic igneous rocks are usually red, this arising from the decomposition of 
the ferro-magnesian minerals, which play a more important part in the constitution of these rocks 
than of granite and other acidic rocks. 

Transported clays consist of residual clays that have been transported by water, or of the 
finer clayey decomposition products that have been washed off the rock-surfaces by rain as fast 
as they were formed. Many of the younger Mesozoic and Cainozoic clays are composed of materials 
derived from the denudation of pre-existing sedimentary rocks of an argillaceous character. 

As a consequence of the manner in which they are formed, both residual and transported 
clays are as varied in composition as the rocks from which they are derived. 

Residual clays accumulate in place in close association with the parent rock. They may 
vary from a few inches to 30 ft. or more in thickness, and may form irregular deposits of large 
size ; but generally the portions of economic value are of small extent and variable composition. 

* P. G. MoEQAN and others: Geol. Bull. No. 22 (N.S.J, Part I, Limestone, pp. 279-80, 1919. 


They are usually 
Many fireclays 

Transported clays, according to their mode of formation, may be — 

(1) Flood-plain clays, deposited by rivers durmg seasonal inundations. 

sandy and of small extent. 

(2) Lacustrine clays, deposited in lakes or shallow fiesh-water lagoons. 

and shales were formed on the floor and shores of lakes. 

(3) Estuarine and deltaic clays, generally impure and sandy, or interbedded with sandy 


(4) Marine clays, often of great extent and thickness, and usually of finer texture and 

more uniform composition than deltaic or lacustrine clays. When calcareous, marine 
clays pass into marls. 
It classified according to their industrial uses, clays may be subdivided into six groups : — 

(1) Porcelain and whiteware clays : Kaolin, china-clay, ball-clay. 

(2) Refractory clays : Fireclay, siliceous shale, stoneware-clay. 

(3) Pottery clays. 

(4) Vitrifying-clays. 

(5) Brick-clays. 

(6) Clays for cement-making. 

The whitestone clays consist essentially of hydrous aluminium silicate derived from the decom- 
position of the feldspar constituent of acidic igneous and metamorphic rocks. Industrially they are 
called " high-grade " clays. Their value lies in their white-burning property and the low content 
of iron, lime, magnesia, and alkalies, or other fluxing-minerals. The relatively higl^ proportion of 
lime and alkalies in some kaolins usually arises from the presence of undecomposed feldspar. 

Of fireclays, the best are those which contain the lowest percentage of fluxing-minerals, as 
iron, lime, magnesia, and alkalies, and the smallest amount of sand or free silica — that is, silica not 
in combination with the alumma. The highest refractory index is obtained when the proportion 
of free silica to the aluminium silicate ranges from 1 to 6-5 or 8. 

Stoneware-clay is a refractory or semi-refractory clay of low grade, but jjossessing toughness 
and a high degree of plasticity. The sand must exist as veiy fine grains. 

Pottery-clays are low-grade plastic clays used for the manufacture of j)roducts for domestic 
and ornamental use, ranging from flower-pots to delicately formed vases. 

Vitiifying-clays arc iiigh in fluxes. They are used for the production of paving-tiles, paving- 
bricks, and sewer-pipes. A high iron content aids the formation of the salt-glaze with which pipes 
are covered. 

Brick-clays are usually low-grade red-burning clays that are capable of being easily moulded, 
and that bum hard at a relatively low temperature without undue shrinkage or warping. In a 
good brick-clay the physical properties are of greater importance than the chemical composition ; 
hence the value of a clay for brickmaking can only be determined by actual experimental tests. 

Clays for the manufacture of artificial Portland cement contain a high proportion of silica, 
and not over 15 per cent, of iron oxides. 

The approximate range of certain constituents in industrial clays is shown below : — - 

Percentage Range of Clay Constituents. 






8 Clays. 























Alumina . . 











Iron oxide 










10 : 












Alkalies . . 








A pure kaolin clay consists of the three essential constituents silica, alumina, and water, which 
occur m chemical combination as the hydrous aluminium silicate called " kaolinite." Kaolinite in 
excessively fine particles when mixed with water forms what is technologically called " silastic 
kaolin." In all industrial clays kaolinite in finely divided form is the essential constitueni ; and 
it is owing to the colloidal properties of the contained plastic kaolin that industrial clays derive 
their plasticity and adhesive strength. The free silica (or sand), iron oxide, lime, magnesia, and 
alkalies usually present in low-grade clays are merely accidental impurities that vary in amount 
according to the character of the parent rock and conditions of deposition. For certain industrial 
uses an excess of sand is not always injurious. In the case of brick-clays deficient in free silica it 
is necessary to add a certain amount of sand in order that the bricks may be able to retain their 
form during the process of burning. And in the case of vitreous clays, the iron, lime, magnesia, 
and alkalies serve a useful purpose. 

Residual Clays. 

In recently glaciated regions residual clays are, as a rule, absent, or but poorly represented. 
The clays of this type that existed before the Pleistocene period were easily removed by the 
advancing ice-sheet ; and in the short interval that has elapsed since the retreat of the ice fresh 
depos ts have not had sufficient time to accumulate. 

In the upper and middle parts of the Waiau basin residual clays are practically non-existent. 
Isolated patches begin to appear near the junction of the Wairaki and Waiau rivers and in the 
lower part of the Lillbum VaUey, bub they are of small extent. They represent the weathered 
parts of the Opper Miocene (Awamoan) clays that lie in the Clifden syncline. Near the junction 
of the main road to Otautau and the branch road going toMerrivale, a few hundred yards from 
the Clifden limestone quarry, there occurs a large deposit of residual clay resting on the outcrop 
of the clayey and sandy beds that underlie the limestone. Dr. Maclaurin, the Dominion Analyst, 
has furnished the following analysis on an air-dried sample of this clay (No. 776/4) collected in 
the road-cutting opposite Mr. King's farm : — 

Silica (SiO 2).. 

. 60-83 

Titanium oxide (TiO 2) 

. 0-88 

Alumina (AUOj) 

. 14-14 

Ferric oxide (FejOa) . . 

. 6-81 

Lime (CaO) . . 

. 1-95 

Magnesia (MgO) 

. 1-95 

Potash (K2O) 

. 1-77 

Soda (Na^O) 

. 2-23 

Water lost at 100° C. 

. 4-73 

Combined water and organic matter 

. 4-67 

Carbon dioxide (CO 2) 



Transported Clays. 

Transported clays, as members of the Middle Tertiary series, cover extensive areas in western 
Southland. According to their origin they may be classified as (1) marine clays, (2) marine 
marls and deltaic clays. The former comprise the uppermost beds of the Tertiary series. They^ 
overlie the Clifden limestone, and are strongly represented in the Clifden-Lillbum basiu. The 
marine and deltaic clays underlie the limestone, and are the beds with which the Nightcaps 
Wairio, Ohai, and Waiau coals are associated. They form thick beds at Blue Cliff, Tuatapere, 
Lower Orawia, Sunnyside, Blackmount, Ohai, Wairio, and Nightcaps, and are the dominant 
members of the coal-measures. 

Marly Clays of the Sunnyside-Blackmount Basin, Waiau Valley. 

A great thickness of pale-blue marly clays is exposed along the course of the Waiau River 
above Sunnyside homestead, at Blackmount homestead. From the Waiau River these clays 
extend eastward to the foot of the Takitimu Mountains. There are many fine exposures in the 


branches of Waikoe and Makarewa streams, especially to the east side of the main Manapouri 
Road. Altogether these clays occupy many square miles in the Simnyside-Blackmount area. 

The analyses of two sam])les of these clays by Dr. Maclaurin, Dominion Analyst, are given 
below. Sample No. 7 is from the west bank of the Waiau River, about a mile above Sunnyside 
homestead ; and sample No. 8 from the west bank of Ligar Creek, a quarter of a mile above Black- 
mount homestead. Two analyses of the Bumside marl, A and B, used by the Milbum Lime and 
Cement Company (Limited) for cement-manufacture are given for comparative purposes. 


Silica (SiOj) 

Titanium oxide (TiOj). 

Alumina (AlgOj) 

Ferric oxide (Fe, 

Lime (CaO) 

Magnesia (MgO) 

Potash (K2O) 

Soda (Na^O) . . 

Water lost at 100° C. 

Combined water and organic matter 

Carbon dioxide (CO2) .. 

No. 776/7. 

No. 776/8. 









, , 


















0-76 1 









, , 

. . 







100 00 


The Sunnyside and Blackmount marly clays, being high in lime and low in both magnesia 
and alkalies, are admirably suited for the manufacture of Portland cement. 

Clays of Clifden-Lillburn Basin. 

These clays belong to the Awamoan stage of the Tertdary series. They occupy many square 
miles in the floor of the Lillbum and Waiau valleys, but are generally concealed by Recent 
gravels. They are well exposed near Mr. Struan Gardner's homestead in the Lillbum Valley and 
at the mouth of the Wairaki River. At Lake Hauroto they are obscured by glacial debris. 
Sample No. 5, from near Struan Gardner's, in the Lillbum Valley, and No. 6, from the eastem 
shore of Lake Hauroto, were analysed in the Dominion Laboratory, with the following results : — 

Sihca (SiO^) 

Titanium oxide (TiOg) 

Alumina (AI2O3) . . 

Ferric oxide (FejOj) 

Lime (CaO) 

Magnesia (MgO) . . 

Potash (KjO) 

Soda (NajO) 

Water lost at 100° C. 

Combined water and organic matter 

Carbon dioxide (CO 2) 

No. 776/5. 

No. 776/6 

























No. 776/5, from the Lillbum, is high in silica and low in magnesia and alkalies, and therefore 
suitable for the manufacture of Portland cement. 

The clays of the coal-measures occupy a large area between Tuatapere and the junction of 
the Orawia River. Dr. Maclaurin 's analysis, quoted below, shows that the ratio of the combined 
alumina and ferric oxide to the silica is higher than desirable in a clay for the manufacture of 
Portland cement. 


Clay from East Bank of Waiau River, Tuatapere (No. 

776/3) . 


• . 

. 46-99 

Titanium oxido (TiOg) 


Alumina (AUOg) 

. 17-31 

Ferric oxide (FegO 3) 

. 1076 

Lime (CaO) 


Magnesia (MgO) 


Potash (K2O) 


Soda (Na^O) 


Water lost at 100° C. 


Combined water and organic matter . . 


Carbon dioxide (CO 2) 



Clays of Mararoa Basin. 

Along the foot of the Takitimu Mountains the Middle Tertiary coals are overlain by a bed 
of clay, usually crushed and slickensided. This clay occurs in isolated patches that are mostly 
of small extent. A sample (No. 776/9), collected from the bed overlying the " rosin seam " at 
Princhester Creek coal-mine, showed the following composition : — 

Analysis of Princhester Clay, by Dr. Maclaurin. 

SiUca (SiOj) 

Titanium oxide (TiOg) 

Alumina (AljOg) 

Ferric oxide (FejOg) 

Lime (CaO) 

Magnesia (MgO) 

Potash (K2O) 

Soda (Na20) 

Water lost at 100° C. . . 

Combined water and organic matter 

Carbon dioxide (COj) 





Clays of Wairio-Nightcaps Area. 

A great thickness of clays overlies the coal-seams at Nightcaps, Moretown, and Quested's. 
At Quested's the " rosin seam " is overlain by a tough plastic clay of good quality. 

Analysis of Quested's Fireclay, by Dr. Maclaurin (No. 776/2) , 

Silica (SiO 2) 

Titanium oxide (TiOg) 

Alumina (AI2O3) 

Ferric oxide (Fe203) 

Lime (CaO) 

Magnesia (MgO) 

Potash (K2O) 

Soda (Na20) 

Water lost at 100° C. 

Combined water and organic matter 

Carbon dioxide (CO 2) 

. 52-11 


. 24-78 





. 0-25 


. 12-49 

. Undet. 


Reporting on the high-temperature tests made with this clay in the Dominion Laboratory 
Dr. Maclaurin says that it formed " at 1060° C. a fairly hard cream-coloured brick, and at 1170° C. 
a very hard cream-coloured brick with stoneware body." This clay should prove of consider- 
able commercial value for brick and tile making. 


The upper members of the coal-measures at Wairio and Nightcaps are crumbling dark-blue 
clays, which are well exposed in the railway-cuttings about a mile from Moretown and in the deep 
railway-cutting a mile from Nightcaps Railway-station. These clays appear to occur in the same 
horizon as the marly clays already referred to in the Sunnyside-Blackmount basin, but are dis- 
tinguished from these by their lower lime content. A sample from the railway-cutting a mile 
from Moretown showed the following composition : — 

Analysis of Wairio Clay, by Dr. Maclaurin (No. 776/1). 

Silica (SiO 2) 

. 48-49 

Titanium oxide (TiOg) 


Alumina (Al^Og) 


Ferric oxide (Fe^Oj) 


Lime (CaO) 


Magnesia (MgO) 


Potash (K,0) 


Soda (Na^O) 


Water lost at 100° C. 


Combined water and organic matter 

. 10-97 

Carbon dioxide (CO2) 


. Undet. 


This clay could be used for the manufacture of Portland cement, but it would be inferior to 
No. 776/5 from Struan Gardner's property in the Lillbum Valley, No. 776/6 from Lake Hauroto, 
and much inferior to No. 776/7 from Sunnyside, and No. 776/8 from Ligar Creek, near Black- 
mount homestead, or the similar clays between Taylor's Creek and the sources of Grassy Creek, 
in the same area. 

Proportion of Clay Substance. 

The proportion of hydrated aluminium silicate, usually called " clay substance " or " clay 
base," contained in a clay exercises a powerful influence on the technological purposes for which 
the clay may be used. In his valuable report on the clay-samples Nos. 776 (1 to 9), the analyses 
of which have been given in the precetiing pages, Dr. Maclaurin says that theoretically these clays, 
if completely dried at 100° C, would have the following composition : — 










Quartz . . 


Clay substance and combined 

Calcium carbonate 
























In ordinary brick which is burned at a relatively low temperature a large percentage of sand 
is advantageous, as it prevents shrinkage and warping ; but at high temperatures free silica acts 
as a flux, and experience has shown that the clays with the smallest quantity of uncombined silica 
are the most refractory. 


Dr. Maclaurin's report on the high-temperature tests made under his direction in the Dominion 
Laboratory is as follows : — 

" Small bricks and tiles made from the clays were dried at 100° C. and burned at tempera- 
tures of 1060° C. and 1170° C. All the clays mould well, and, with the exception of No. 776/4, 
are of high plasticity." 
6— Geol Bull. No. 23. 


High-temperature Tests. 


at 100° C. 

at 1060° C. 

at 1170° C. 

Nature of Bricks produced. 


Per Cent. 

Per Cent. 

Per Cent. 




At 1060° C, a pale yellowish-red brick, hard but somewhat 
cracked ; at 1170° C, a dark-red brick cracked, swollen, 
and fused at centre. 





At 1060° C a fairly hard cream-coloured brick ; at 1170° C, 
a very hard cream-coloured brick with stoneware body. 





At 1060° C, a red brick, cracked, swollen, and fused in parts 
to a vesicular slag. 




At 1060° C, a dark-red very hard brick with stoneware body. 




At 1060° C, a brownish-red brick, swollen in centre, and 
partly fused to a vesicular slag. 





At 1060° C, a brownish-red brick, broken, swollen, and partly 




At 1060° C, a cream-coloured brick, warped and cracked. 
Portion of another brick completely fused. 





At 1060° C, a very pale-red rather soft brick ; at 1170° C, 
the clay fuses completely to a dark translucent slag. 





At 1060° C, a very pale-red rather soft brick ; at 1170° C, 
a dark-red very hard brick, somewhat cracked. 

776/1 (sample No. 1), clay from railway-cutting half-mile on Wairio side of Moretown. 

776/2 (sample No. 2), clay overlying " rosin seam," Quested's. 

776/3 (sample No. 3), day from east bank of Waiau River, near bridge, Tuatapere. 

776/4 (sample No. 4), residual clay from road-cutting near King's farm, opposite limestone quarry, 
near CUfden. 

776/5 (sample No. 5), marine blue clay, Struan Gardner's, Lillburn Valley, Waiau. 

776/6 (sample No. 6), marine blue clay from eastern shore of Ijake Hauroto. 

776/7 (sample No. 7), blue marine clay from west bank of Waiau River a mile above Sunnyside home- 

776/8 (sample No. 8), blue marine clay from west bank of Ligar Creek, near Blackmount homestead, 
Waiau Valley. 

776/9 (sample No. 9), clay overlying " rosin seam " at Princhester Creek coal-mine, at north end 
of Takitimu Mountains. 

Reporting on these results Dr. Maclaurin says : " It will be seen that Nos. 2, 4, 8, and 9 
are the only clays likely to prove of commercial value, and of these No. 8 would require most 
careful regulation of the temperature in burning. The very low fusing-point and short vitrification 
range of Nos. 8 and 9 are no doubt influenced by the high lime content. The fusing, swelling, 
and cracking shown by Nos. 1, 3, 5, and 6 seem to be connected with the large amoiint of iron 
in these clays, associated with fairly high percentages of other fluxing-materials. It may be noted 
also that while these clays are ' blue clays,' No. 4, which is a clay of similar composition, but 
does not exhibit these defects, is a yellow one. No. 9, though it contains much iron, has com- 
paratively small amounts of other fluxing-materials." 

BiRCHWooD Clays. 

Blue marine marly clays of great thickness occupy a large area at Birchwood in the Ohai 
Valley. These clays lie below the limestone, and overlie the coal-measures. In character and 
composition they resepible the blue clays at Blackmount and Sunnyside. The analysis quoted 
below shows that the Birchwood clays possess the constituents required in a clay for the manu- 
facture of a first-class Portland cement 


Silica (SiO^) 

tt- Kyv^ltjj i/ij ±Ji . ±rA 

liUl'UU^i lit-. 

. 45-79 

Titanium oxide (TiOj) 


Alumina (AljOg) 

. 11-52 

Ferric oxide (FejOa) 


Lime (CaO) 


Magnesia (MgO) 


Potash (K 2 0) 


Soda (Na^O) 


Water lost at 100° C. 


Carbon dioxide (CO 2) 


Combined water and organic matter 



The analysis was made on an air-dried sample. Dr. Maclaurin reports that if the clay were 
dried at 100° C. its composition, calculated from the analysis, would be as follows : — 

Quartz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-3 

Feldspar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-3 

Calcium carbonate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-0 

Clay substance . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-4 

In reference to temperature tests made in the Dominion Laboratory he reports that small 
bricks prepared from the clay were dried at 100° C. and baked at 1040° C, and were badly 
cracked and had commenced to swell at the centre and to vitrify. Small tiles baked at a 
somewhat lower temperature were pink-coloured and of moderate hardness. They showed the 
following shrinkage : At 100° C, 8-5 per cent. ; on burning, 9-4 per cent. 

The Birchwood clays contain too high a proportion of fluxing-constituents for the manufacture 
of firebrick or other refractory products ; but with careful regulation of temperature they could 
be used for the manufacture of red roofing-tiles and drain-pipes. The ratio of th<; alumina and 
iron oxide to the silica is approximately 1 to 3. This relationship and the high lime and low 
magnesia content constitute an ideal clay for the manufacture of Portland cement. 


Chemically considered, cement is a complex silicate of lime, magnesia, and iron of variable 
composition. According to their origin, cements are classified as (1) artificial, (2) natural. 

Of artificial cements the best-known kinds are Portland cement and Roman cement. They 
are manufactured by calcining an intimate mixture of limestone and clay, and afterwards grinding 
the resulting clinker to a fine powder. Generally, a mixture of 75 per cent, of high-grade 
limestone and 25 per cent, of clay will produce a good Portland cement. 

In England the best Roman cements are made from the following proportions of limestone 
and clay : Limestone, 49 to 66 per cent. ; clay, 47 to 32 per cent. 
Among engineers the limits of a good Portland cement are- 
Sihca (SiOj) 
Alumina (AI2O3) 
Ferric oxide (FcjOj) 
Lime (CaO) 
Magnesia (MgO) 
Sulphuric anhydride 

To produce slow-setting cement the American practice is to add gypsum (calcium sulphate) 
up to 2 per cent. The lime, silica, and iron play an important part in the formation of a good 
cement. Magnesia alone is an impurity, performing no useful function, and becoming dangerous 
if present in too large proportions, as it needs a much higher temperature than lime to enable it 
to combine with silica, and hence, if present in excess, a portion is usually left uncombined or 
only loosely combined. 

Per Cent. 

19-00 to 


4-00 to 


2-00 to 


57-00 to 


000 to 


0-00 to 



Most cements contain potash and soda, collectively called " alkalies " ; but the amount is small, 
and the effect so unimportant that they are not as a rule estimated separately. Marine clays and 
marls that contain streaks, bands, or nodules of glauconitic material may run high in potash, and 
should not be used in cement-manufacture, as the potash, being a powerful flux, soon destroys the 
firebrick lining of the revolving calcining-fumace. 

According to Le Chatelier,* the minimum proportion of lime in a true Portland cement should 

CaO + MgO „ , . , CaO + MgO 

not be less than wrp^ — , ..^ = 3, nor the maximum greater than ^vt^ — , ., .^ — , -n, ^ = 3. 
S1O2 + AI2U3 DiU^ + AI2U3 + rCgUg 

In the construction of these formulae Le Chatelier assumed that not more than three equiva- 
lents of lime or magnesia can enter into chemical combination with silica and alumina. British 
cement-manufacturers adhere generally to the proportions of lime indicated by Le Chatelier's 

Natural cements are those produced from rock containing the requisite proportions of lime 
and clay. The finest natural cement in the market is that produced at Grenoble, in France, 
where a bed of argillaceous limestone (hydraulic limestone) 15 ft. in thickness occurs interbedded 
in a compact limestone. 

The composition of the argillaceous limestone is- 

Iron oxides . . 
Calcium carbonate 
Magnesium carbonate 
Water and loss 

After calcining, the resulting cement has the following composition : — 

Per Cent. 

13-40 to 17-37 

6-20 to 12-37 

3-50 to 12-37 

66-50 to 64-75 

6-00 to traces 

4-40 to 5-50 

Per Cent. 
27-30 to 26-30 
9-30 to 12-70 
Lime .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 50-80 to 55-00 

Magnesia .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 3-00 to 0-00 

This cement is quick-setting, taking from eight to sixteen minutes to set. MiKed with 
three parts of sand it can bear a weight of 1131b. per square inch after being set for two hours. 

Large deposits of argillaceous limestone of Middle Tertiary age occur in north Canterbury, at 
Amuri Bluff, in the Clarence Valley, Kaikoura Peninsula, and Cape Campbell areas, in the South 
Island ; and on the east coast of Wellington and north Auckland, in the North Island. No argil- 
laceous limestone suitable for the manufacture of Portland cement occurs in Otago or Southland. 

The Economics of Cement-manufacture. 

The raw materials required for the manufacture of Portland cement are limestone of good 
grade and a siliceous clay. Besides these, coal is required for drying and calcining. Generally, 
the raw materials are mixed in the proportion of 50 tons of clay to 100 tons of limestone. In 
modem well-equipped plants about 100 tons of coal are required for every 100 tons of limestone 
in the cement mixture. Approximately, the proportions are — Limestone, 6 tons ; clay, 3 tons ; 
coal, 6 tons. 

Economically considered, the best place for the manufacture of cement is where the limestone, 
clay, and coal occur together ; and if these three occur at a place centrally situated in respect of 
the means of distribution we get the theoretically ideal condition. 

Limestone and clay occur in the Clifden district, but there is no coal ; limestone occurs in 
the Winton - Forest Hill district, but there is no clay or coal. And here it may be mentioned 
that, though bituminous coals are in common use for calcination, low-grade lignitic fuels cannot be 
used economically for this purpose. Clay and coal occur in abimdance at Wairio and Nightcaps, 
but there is no limestone nearer than the base of Twinlaw Peak, some three miles from More- 

Annales des Mines, p. 346, 1887. 


The local brown coals could be used for power i)urposes in connection with the manufacture of 
Portland cement, but bituminous coal for clinkering would have to be obtained from the West 
Coast or New South Wales. 

If we consider the immediate needs of Southland in connection with the great hydro-electric 
scheme now under way, Clifden at once presents itself as the best place for the manufacture of 
cement ; but if we look to the future and more permanent needs of Southland, the Makarewa 
Junction seems to be the most suitable and convenient site for the central works. This place is 
already connected by railway with the limestone deposits in the Win ton - Forest Hill district, 
distant some eighteen miles, and by railway with Wairio and Nightcaps, distant some forty-five 
miles, all on the down grade and in favour of the load. Against the railage charges would be set 
off the small transport charge to convey the manufactured cement to Invercargill, which for many 
years after the completion of the Monowai hydro-electric installation is certain to be the principal 
market. Moreover, on account of the better conditions of life, the wage charges would be less 
than in a remote district. 

Marly clays in large quantity, and of the best quality for cement-manufacture, occur at Birch- 
wood, in the Ohai Valley ; and limestone of high grade is present at the base of Twiulaw Peak. 
If these places j^ossessed transport facilities the claims of Ohai as the site for the main Southland 
cement-works would have to be seriously considered. The ultuuate selection of the site for the 
works must rest with those who undertake to finance the undertaking. In its coals, limestones, 
and clays Southland possesses assets of great value. 


Certain bands of the Tertiary polyzoan limestone at Clifden are well adapted for building- 
stone of the softer kind, being little inferior to Oamaru stone except in colour. 

Among the harder cryslrtlline rocks, the diorites, diorite-gneisses, and granites of the Clbiton 
River Series, as developed to tlie west of Lake Monowai, Lake Manapouri, and Lake Te Anau, 
and at the south end of the Longwood Range, will furnish sound heavy stones in great variety, 
eminently suited for engineering construction, liouse-building, and ornamental purposes. Of these 
stones the most accessible occur on the coast between Jacob's River and Orepuki, and in the 
neighbourhood of Round Hill. Besides these, the melaphyre at Jacob's Estuary, the basalt at 
Mount Pleasant in the Pourakino Creek area, and the augite-porphyrite in the Ohai district will 
be some day sought after as building-stones. Meantime, on account of its accessibility and the 
ease with which it may be opened up, the norite of BluS Hill will supply Southland's needs for 
many years to come. 

In the next century Southland will be famous for its building-stones, of which it possesses a 
larger quantity and greater variety than any other part of New Zealand. 



Acheron Passage — 
Gneisses at, 36. 
Schists east of, 48. 
Acidity of soils : Effects on plant-life, 8, 9. 
Aciphylla Lyalli', 11. 

Aix-la-Chapelle, calainine-bearing hiUs at, 8. 
Akeake, 10. 

Albany, granite boulders in conglomerate at, 24. 
Albian peneplaining of land, 27. 
AlkaU feldspars— 

As constituent of granite, 42. 
As constituent of granuhte, 42. 
AlkaUo magmas, 25. 
Alkalinity : Effect on plant-life, 8. 
Alpine plant-zone, 11. 
Ambrite, or fossil resin, .57 et seq. 
America, Clonograptus in, 38. 
Atnorpha canescens, 8. 
Amphibole-schist, 36, 37. 
Amphibolite — 

In diorites, 43. 
In schists, 33, 35, 47. 
Amuri Bluff, argillaceous limestone at, 76, 
Analyses of — 

Clays and marls — 
Buraside marl, 71. 
Fireclay at Quested' s, 72. 
Hauroto clay, 71. 
Marine clay at Birchwood, 74. 
Marine clay at Blackmount, 71. 
Residual clay, Chfden, 70. 
Coals from— 

Clapp's mine, 64. 
Flagstag Hill, 65. 
Loudon Hill, 65. 
Mossbank No. 1, 64. 
Mossbank No. 2, 64. 
Ohai, 64. 

Princhester Creek, 64. 
Quested's, 59. 
Wairaki Mine, 64. 
Wairio (Smith's) Mine, 58. 
Upukerora Mine, 65. 
Rocks — 
Gabbro, 45. 
Granuhte, 46. 
Hornblende-diorite, 44. 
Pyroxene-diorite, 45. 
Quartz-biotite-diorite, 44. 
Anas superciliosa, 7. 
Anchor Island, graptolite slates at, 34. 
Andesine, as constituent of diorite, 43, 44. 
Andrews, E. C, 14, 15, 17. 
Anita Bay — 

Dunite at, 46, 47. 
Granuhte at, 46. 
Anomia, 51. 

Antarctic land, N.Z. fauna related to, 32. 
Anthus novceseelandia:, 5. 
Aorere Series, 17, 33, 37. 
Aparima Plains, coal below, 50. 
Apatite — 

In diorite, 43, 45. 
In gneiss, 36. 
Aphanaia, 40. 
Aphanitic breccia, 39. 

phanitic sandstone, 39. 
Aphte dykes, 42, 46. 
Arahura — 

Gneisses, 43. 
Schists, 43. 
Series, 26, 33, 36, 37. 
Arber, E. A. NeweU, 31, 41. 

Area. 51. 

Archaean continent, duration of, 26. 

ArgiUites at — 

Dusky Sound, 34. 

Livingstone Range, 40. 

Longwood Range, 39. 

Preservation Inlet, 34, 35. 

Takitimu Mountains, 39. 
Aristotelia racemosa, 10. 
Arrow River — 

Mica-schist of, 36. 

Strike of schists, 36. 
Arthur Valley — 

Diorite at, 42. 

Moraines at, 15. 

Todea hyrnenophylloides, 11. 

YeUowhead at, 5. 
Asplenium at — 

Blue CUff, 11. 

Mussel Beach, 11. 
Astelia linearis, 11. 
Atawhenuan N.-S. folding, 23, 24. 
Atlantic region, tectonics of, 25. 
Atropis stricta, 9. 

Auckland, argillaceous limestones north of, 76. 
Augite in — 

Augite-diorite, 45. 

Hornblende-diorite, 42. 

Pyroxene-diorite, 44. 
Augite-diorite at — 

Round Hill, 45. 

Sumatra, 54. 
Augite -porphy rite, 40, 42. 
Australia — 

Grey teal of, 7. 

Mesozoic plants, 30. 

Permian glacial deposits of, 29. 

Permian rocks of, 41. 
Australian arcs of Suess, 25. 
Awamoan clays — 

Analysis of, 71. 

At Ciifden, 52. 

At Lillburn Valley, 50, 
Axial chains of North Island — 

Main folds, 17. 

Remains of ancient peneplain, 17. 

Rucks composmg, 17. 


B damis, 51. 

Barium oxide in diorite, 44. 

Bartrum, J. A., 16, 17. 

Basalt intruding argillites, 40, 42. 

Bat, 32. 

Bat, long-tailed, 4. 

BathoUths of diorite, granite, &c., 34, 35, 36. 35, 

42, 46. 
Batonian Series (Silurian), 39. 
Beeches, 10. 
Bell, J. M., 17, 33, 37. 
BeO-bird, or makomako, 5 
Bendigonian stage, 38. 
Benham, W. B., 4. 
Big Bay, serpentine east of, 46. 
Big River, drainage area of, 4. 
" Big Seam " — 

Burnt area of, 60. 

In Ohai area, 59. 
Biotite, 36, 37, 43, 45, 46, 47. 
Biotite-granite, 46. 
Biotite-norite, 45. 
Biotite-schist, 37. 


Birchwood — 

Analysis of clay at, 75. 

Clays at, 74, 77. 

Gas near, 63. 
Bird -life, 4-7. 
Bittern, 6. 
Black shag, 7. 
Black teal, or pupango, 7. 
Blackmount — 

Bottle-neck of, 14. 

Faulting at, 20. 

Marly clays at, 71. 

Marly clays, analysis of, 73. 

Tertiary beds at, 50, 51. 
Blackmount HiU — 

Conglomerates at, 51, 52. 

Drainage area of, 1, 4. 

Limestone barrier near, 54, 55. 

Section of, 53. 
Blackmount Homestead — 

Ground-lark at, 5. 

Wood-pigeons at, 6. 
Bligh Sound — 

Diorites at, 47. 

Drainage area of, 4. 

Gneisses at, 47. 
Blight- bird, 5. 
Blue CU£E— 

Bird-life at, 5. 

Coal-measures at, 1. 

Faulting at, 20. 

Mixed bush at, 11. 

Old outlet of Hauroto at, 3. 

Sandhills at, 56. 

Storm- beaches at, 56. 

Tertiary fossils at, 50. 

Tertiary strata at, 1. 
Blue duck, or whio, 7. 
Blue-grass, 11. 

Bluff, intrusive diorites and norites at, 42. 
Bog-moss, 11. 
Borehole records, 61-63. 
Boreland River — 

Drainage area of, 4. 

Glacial drift at, 3. 

Moraines at, 2. 
Bortonian absent in Southland, 50. 
Boss of granulite, Anita Bay, 46. 
Botanical zones, 9-11. 

Alpine zone, 11. 

Forest zone, 11. 

Meadow zone, 9, 10. 

Mixed- bush zone, 10, 11. 

River-bed zone, 9. 

Salt meadows, 9. 

Salt swamps, 9. 

Subalpine zone, 11. 
Botaurus pceciloptilus, 6. 
Bowenite, 46. 

Bradshaw Sound, drainage into, 4. 
Brick-clay, analysis of, 69. 
Broadleaf, 10, 11. 
Brown creeper, 5. 
Bryneira Range — 

Argillites and limestones at, 39. 

Clinton River, intrusives at, 42. 

Gabbro at, 42. 

Limestone at, 29, 39. 

Maitais resting on Kakanuian at, 39. 

Norite at, 42. 

Norite east of, 43. 

Serpentine at, 42. 

Summit, view from, 14. 
Bryograptus, 34, 38. 
Building -stones — 

Augite-poi-phyrite, 77. 

Basalt, 77. 

Bluff HiU norite, 77. 

Diorite, 77. 

Diorite gneiss, 77. 

Granite, 77. 

BuUer-Mokihinui country, remnants of peneplain in, 

16, 17. 
Bumside marl, analysis of, 71. 
Burnt area of coal at Ohai, 60. 
Bush-lawyer, 10. 
Buttercup, subalpine, 10. 


Cabbage-tree, 10. 

Calamine pansy, 8. 

Calamites, 30. 

Calcic magmas, intrusion of, 25. 

(alcite, 37, 43, 45. 

Calcium phosphate in soils, 8. 

Cambrian rocks {see Manapouri System). 

Cambrian seas, life of, 28. 

Cambrian, Upper — 

Age of graptolites, 34, 38. 

Alteration of argilUtes, 34. 
Cameron Mountains, drainage of, 3. 
Campbell, Charles, 12. 
Campbell Islands — 

Cretaceous strata, 18. 

Tertiary strata, 18, 31. 
Camptonite dykes in granite, 42. 
Canterbury ancient peneplain, 16. 
Cape Campbell, argillaceous limestone at, 76. 
Carboniferous — • 

Hiatus at close of, 26, 29. 

Subsidence, 26. 

Transgression of sea, 41. 
Cardium xpatiosum, 51. 
Carex litorosa, 9. 
Carex Petriei, 11. 
Carlyle, Thomas, 7, 8. 
Carmichaelia c rymbosa, 11. 
Carmichaelia Monroi, 11. 
Caroline Burn, drainage area of, 3. 
Carpodetus serralus, 10. 

Carrick Range, part of Otago peneplain, 14. 
Castle Hill, limestone at, 49. 
Caswell Sound — • 

Block of limestone in diorite, 36. 

CrystaUine schist at, 35. 
Cataclastic effects in diorites, 35, 42, 47. 
Cedar, N.Z., 10, 11. 
Celery-pine, 10. 
Celmisia curiacea, 11. 
Cdmisia discolor, 11. 
Celmisia glandulosa, 11. 
Celmisia Haastii, 11. 
Celmisia laricifolia, 11. 
Celmisia Lyallii, 11. 
Cilmisia ramulosa, 11. 
Celmisia sessiliflora, 11. 
Cement — 

Manufacture of, 1, 76, 77. 

Portland, 75. 

Roman, 75. 
Cement clays, analysis of, 69-75. 
Cenomanian transgression of sea, 16, 18, 27. 
Chalcopyrite in schist, 37. 
Chalinolobtis morio, 4. 
Chalkv Inlet, slates at, 34. 35. 
Chariton, G. E., 12. 
Charltf)n Burn, drainage area of, 3. 
Chatham Islands — 

Cretaceous strata at, 18. 

Tortiarv strata at, 18. 
Chlorite, 37, 43, 44, 45. 
Chlorite-sehist, 34, 35, 36. 
Circle Cove, ice-striae at, 55. 
Circtis gouldi, 7 
Cirques, 55. 
Clapp's coal-mine, 59. 
Clarence Valley — 

Argillaceous limestone at, 76. 

Depression, 27. 

Excavation of, 27. 

Fault, 27. 
Clarke, E. de C, 17. 


Classification of rock formations 32. 
Clays — 

Analyses of, 69-73. 

Ball clay, 09. 

Brick clay, 69. 

Cenientmaking clay, 69. 

China clay, 68. 

Deltaic clay, 69. 

Estuarine clay, 69. 

Fireclay, 69. 

Flood-plain clays, 68. 

Kaolin, 68. 

Lacustrine clays, 69. 

Marine clays, 68. 

Origin of, 08. 

Porcelain clays, 69. 

Pottery clays, 69. 

Refractory clays, 69. 

Residual clays, 68. 

Teni])erature tests of, 73, 74. 

Transported clays, 69, 70. 

Vitrifying clays, 09. 
Cleddau River — 

Oabbro at, 4.5. 

Moraines at, 15. 
Clematis indivisa, 10. 
Clifden — 

Building-stone at, 77. 

Limestone at, 49, 55, 67. 

Limestone barrier at, 54. 

Tertiary fossils at, 50, 51. 

White-eye at, 5. 
Clifden basin. Tertiary beds in, 53. 
Climate, 2. 
Clinton River area — 

Diorites in, 20. 

Drainage of, 4. 
Clinton River diorites : Folding accompanying intru- 
sion, 23. 
Clinton River Series — 

Age of intrusion, 23, 42, 43. 

General character and distribution, 42. 

MoKinnon Pass area, 47. 

Petrology of, 43^6. 

Sounds area, 47, 48. 
Clinton VaUey — 

Bird life in, 5. 

Diorites in, 42 

Parrakeets in, 6. 

Pyroxene-diorite in^ 44. 

Quartz-biotite-diorite, 44. 
Clonograptus tenellus, 38. 
Clonografilw: tenellus var. callaiei, 38. 
Coal-measures, coal-occurrences, &c , 1, 2, 13, 15, 16, 

18, 31, 49, 50, 64, .57 66. 
Coal-measures, deposition of sediments of, 15. 
Coal resources, 1, 2, 57-66. 
Cockayne, L. 8, 9. 
Collinowood — 

Pikikiruna Series in, 35. 

Subdivision of rocks in, 33. 
Convolvulus althceoides, 8. 
Cook Strait, ranges end at, 24. 
Coprosma cuneata, 11. 
Goprosma fcelidissima, 10. 
Coprosma parii flora, 11. 
Coprosma repens, 11. 
Coprosma serrulata. 11. 
Cordyline auslralis, 10. 
Coriana aruiustissima, 10 
Coriaria rv-scifolia, 10. 
Coriana ihymifolta, 11. 
Cotton, C. A., 20. 
Colula dioica, 9. 
Cox, S. H., 33, 36. 
Crested grebe, 7 
Cretaceous strata — 

Apparent conformity with Tertiary strata, 19. 

Faulting of, 19. 

Not entangled in mountain folding, 23. 

Survival of, 19. 

Crustal sag, 19, 30. 
CrystalUn^; schists in — 

Fiordland, 20, 34, 36. 

Nelson, 26, 33 

Otago, 33. 

Southland, 33. 

Westland, 26, 33. 
Cuboidal blocks, 15, 16 

Long tailed, .5. 

Shining, 5. 
Cuculloia alia, 51. 
Curio Ba}', fossil fore.«t at, 30. 
Cuthbert, H., 12. 
Cyanorhamphus, 6. 


Dacrydium Ridirillii, 10. 
Dacrydium cupressiimm, 10 
Dacrydium lowjijnliu in, 11. 
Dagg's Sound — 

Diorite at, 47. 

Gneiss at, 47. 

Granite at, 47. 
Dana, J. D., 26. 
Danian recession of sea, 27. 
Danian uplift, 19. 
Danthonia Havescens, 11. 
Danthonia Raoulii, 11. 
Daonella, 30. 
Darran Mountains — 

Biotite-norite at, 45. 

Diorite at, 34. 

Diorite to west of, 13. 

Hornblende-diorite at, 43. 

Maitai Formation at, 40. 

Mica-norite at, 42. 

Remnant of ancient peneplain, 14. 
Deltaic clays, 68. 
Dentalium, .51. 

Denudation of Cretaceous strata, 31. 
Deschampsia tenella, 11. 
Devonian hiatus in New Zealand, 26, 29. 
Devonian N.E.-S.W. folding, 22, 23. 
Devonian or Tuhuan granite intrusions, 23. 
Diallage as constituent of wehrlite, 47. 
Diastrophic disturbance at close of Miocene, 19. 
Diastrophic movements, 22-24. 

Atawhenuan, 23, 24. 

Hokonuian, 23. 

Rangitatan, 23, 24. 

Ruahine, 23. 

Tuhuan, 23, 24. 
Diastrophism in- — 

Australia 30. 

New Zealand, 30. 

Tasmania, 30. 
Differential uplift, 19, 23 
Differentiation of magma, 42. 
Digger's Hill — 
■ Fault at, 20. 

Limestone at, 65, 67. 

Limestone barrier at, 54. 

Tertiary clays at, 53. 
Diorites — 

At Hidden Falls Saddle, 40. 

Basic rocks associated with, 42. 

Date of intrusion, 23, 42, 43. 

Erratics, 55. 

Of Clinton River Series, 23, 42 -48. 

Trio- Jurassic conglomerate in, 42. 
Diorite complex, 13. 
Dioritic gneiss, 34. 
Diplodoii inflatus, 61. 
Dii^ton, limestone at, 49. 
Direction of orogenic thrust, 23. 
Disraria toumatou, 9. 
Dispersal of fauna, 32. 
Docherty, W.. 35. 
Donnelly, R., 12, 68. 
Dotterel, 7. 


Doubtful Sound, schists at, 47. 
Dracophylliim MenzKsii, 11. 
Dracophi/llinn siriclum, 11- 
Drirn/js colorata, 10. 
Dun Mountain — 

Maitai Formation at, 40. 

Relic of ancient peneplain, 17. 

Serpentine at, 43. 
Dunedin, white-eye at, 5. 
Dunite — 

Absent from Trias conglomerates, 43. 

Age of intrusion, 43- 

At Anita Bay, 46. 

At Hidden Falls Saddle, 40. 

At Milford Round, 46. 

At Red Hill Range, 46. 
Dunstan Range: Kelic of ancient peneplain, 14 
Dusky Sound — 

Diorites at, 47. 

Diorite-gneiss at, 48. 

Drainage area of, 3. 

Gneiss at, 47. 
Dusky Sound Series, 13, 28, 35-37. 

Character and distribution, 35, 30. 

Equivalent of Park's Pikildruna Series, 35. 

Intruded by Clinton River cUorites, 36, 43. 

Structure, 36. 

Tliickness, 36. 


Earl Mountains, tilted Tertiaries at, 53. 
Early Cretaceous erogenic folding, 18. 
East Cape area — 

Ranges relic of ancient peneplain, 18. 

Sunken N.W.-S.E. range of, 22. 
Eglinton River, rock-rents near, 21. 
Eglinton Valley, bird-life of, 4. 
Elm Creek, coal at, 64. 
Endemic land-mammals, absence of, 32. 
England, Mesozoic plants of, 30. 
Eocene — • 

Land bridge ■ between New Zealand and north- 
east Australia, 31. 

Subsidence, 27. 

Uplift, 17, 31. 
Epidote in — • 

Chlorite-schist, 37. 

Diorite, 44, 45. 

Epidote-scMst, 37. 

Feldspathic schist, 37. 

Mica-gneiss, 47. 

Schists, 35, 37. 
Epidote-schist, 37. 
Epilobium confertijolium, 11. 
Erratics — ■ 

At Kisbee Bay, 15. 

Mararoa basin, 55. 
Esk Burn, drainage area of, 4. 
Estuarine clays, 68. 
Euphrasia antarctica, 11. 
Euphrasia revoluta, 11. 
Eurasia — 

Land bridge to New Zealand, 30. 

Trias of, 30. 
Europe, graptolites of, 38. 
Eyre Mountains — 

Drainage area of, 4. 

Relic of ancient peneplain, 14. 

Facile Harbour, graptolite slates at, 34. 

Falls Creek, fossil annelid at, 40. 

Farquharson, R. A., 1, 40, 45. 

Faulted blocks, 14, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 23, 28. 

Fault-map of New Zealand, 20. 

Faults bounding New Zealand to east and west, 26 

Faults of slow growth, 23. 

Fauna, 4-7. 

Faunal changes, 31. 

Feldspar, 42, 43, 44, 45, 47, &c. 
Feldspathic schist, 34, 30. 
Feldwick, limestone at, 07. 
Fern- bird, 4. 
Fescue-tussock, 11. 
Fesluca novce-zealandice, 11. 
Festuca rubra, 10. 
Fiji Islands, 25. 
Finschia novceseelandioe, 5. 
inord arms not glacial but fault-planes, 21. 
. Fiordland — 

Crystalline schists of, 26. 

Peneplained area, 14. 

Weka in, 16. 
Fireclay, analysis of, 69. 
F^sh Creek, coal-seams near, 57, 58. 
Five-finger, or patete, 10. 
Flax, New Zealand, 10. 
Flood-plain clays, 09. 
Flora, 7-11. 

Changes in, 31. 
Fluvio-glacial drifts at — 

Manaj)ouri, 55. 

Mararoa basin, 55. 

Sunnysido, 55. 

Te Anau, 55. 
F"'oliated schists, 30. 
Fore-deeps, 25. 
Fore-land, 25. 
Fore-troughs, 25. 
Forest Hill, limestone at, 70, 77. 
Forest zone of plant-life, 11. 
Fowler, J. M., 55, 5(). 
Franklin Mountains — 

Drainage area, 4. 

Tilted Tertiaries on, 53. 
Eraser, Colin, 10, 33, 37. 
Fuchsia excorticata, 10. 
Fuchsite in scliist, 37. 
Fuligula rwvoiseelandia;, 7. 


Gabbro, 42, 45. 

At Hidden Falls Saddle, 40. 

At Sumatra, 54. 

Probable source of platinum, 54. 
Oallirallus brachypterus, 0. 
Gardner, Struan, 12, 71. 
Garnet, 36, 37, 47, 54. 
Garnet-mica-schist, 36, 37. 
Garvie Range : Relic of ancient peneplain, 14. 
Gasolene from natural gas, 66. 
Gear Arm, drainage into, 4. 
Genetic methods, 8. 
Oentiana monlaiia, 11. 
Geographical changes, 29, 31. 

Geograjjhical relationships of New Zealand, 24, 25. 
Geological history of New Zealand, 31. 
Geological structure, 13. 
George Sound, diorites at, 47. 
Gill, Professor, 32. 
GiUies's farm, bell-bird at, 5. 
Glacial drifts at — 

Hauroto area, 55. 

Lake Ada, 56. 

Lillburn, 55. 

Manapouri, 9, 55. 

Mararoa, 55. 

Ramparts, 55. 

Te Anau, 55. 
Glacial erosion in Fiordland, 15. 
Glaciation of Pernio -Carboniferous lands, 29. 
Glade House, 4, 40. 
Glaisnock River, drainage of, 4. 
Oleichenia dicarpa, 11. 

Glossopteris not known in New Zealand, 29, 44. 
Glycynieris globosa, 51. 
Olycymeris laticostata, 51. 
Gneiss, 23, 26, 28, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 42, 43, 47. 

Boulders of, in North Island conglomerate, 24. 


Gneiss- -continued. 

Dioritic, 47, 48. 

Intrusive, 42. 

Manapourian, 33-37. 

Origin of, 36. 

Triassic conglomerate containing, 42. 
Gnoissoid structure in diorites, 42. 
Gold in beach sands, 54. 
Gold-bearing quartz veins, 54. 
Golden Ridge, graptoHtes at, 38. 
Gondwanaland, 27. 

Relationship to New Zealand, 29, 30, 41. 
Gorge Burn, drainage into, 4. 
Granite — 

Boulders of, in North Island conglomerates, 24. 

Clinton River Series, 42. 

Dates of intrusions, 23, 42, 43. 

Erratics, 15, 55. 

Preservation Inlet, 46, 47. 

Sumatra, 54. 

Triassic conglomerates containing, 42. 

Tuhuan, 2 ', 34. 
Granite-gneiss, 33, 34, 42, 48. 
Granitic intrusions attending Tuhuan folding, 23. 
Granulites, 42, 46. 
Graphite in schists, 37. 
Graptolites, 27, 34. 
Grasses — • 

Arundo conspicua, 9. 

Atropis stricta, 9. 

Fe-stuca rubra, 10. 

Festuca iwvcB-zealandim, 11. 

Poa cmspitosa, 10. 
Grebe, crested, 7. 
Grebe River, drainage into, 4. 
Greenstone Saddle, Maitai rocks at, 40. 
Grenoble — 

Natural cement rock at, 76. 

Natural cement, analysis of, 76. 
Grey duck, or parera, 7. 
Grey teal, 7. 

Grey warbler, or riroriro, 5. 
Greywackes of Maitai Formation, 36, 39. 
Griselinia littoralis, 10, 11. 
Ground-lark, or pihoihoi, 5. 
Grubenmann, U., middle metamorphic zone of, 47. 


Haast, Sir Julius von, 22, 23. 
Haematite in feldspathic schist, 37. 
HoRtnatopus niger unicolor, 7. 
Hall, T. S., 38. 
Hampden, bell-bird at, 5. 
Hanging-valleys, 15. 

Bowen Falls, 55. 

StirUng FaUs, 55. 
Harker, Alfred, 25. 
Harrier-hawk, or kahu, 7. 
Harzburgite at Hidden Falls Saddle, 46. 
Hauroto country — 

Black teal at, 7. 

Celery-pine at, 10. 

Clay at, 71. 

Parrakeet at, 6. 
Hawke's Bay, Albian sediments at, 27. 
Hay River, drainage of, 3. 
Heaths, 11. 

Dracophyllum longifolium, 10. 
Hector Range : Relic of Tahoran peneplain, 14. 
Hector, Sir James, 33, 34, 36, 37, 39, 43, 48. 
Helmet Hill- 
Limestone at, 67. 

Tertiary fossils at, 50. 
Hemiphaga novoeseelandioe, 6. 
Henderson, J., 17. 
Herodias alba maoriana, 6. 
Hidden Falls Saddle — 

Dunite at, 46. 

Norite at, 43. 

Serpentine at, 43, 

High-level drifts — 

Mararoafbasin, 55. 

Sunnyside, 55. 

Te Anau basin, 55. 
High-temperature tests of clays, 73-74. 
Himaniopus leucocephalus alba, 7. 
Hochstetter, F. von, 22, 30. 
Hokonuian rocks — 

Folding of, 39. 

North-east of Mount Hamilton, 39. 
HoUyford Valley — 

ArgiUites north of, 39. 

Clinton River Series in, 42. 

Dunite north of, 46. 

Limestone of, 29. 
Homotaxial deposits, 29. 
Hornblende as constituent of — 

Diorite, 42, 43, 44. 

Diorite-gneiss, 47. 
Hornblende rock at McKinnon's Pass, 42. 
Hornblende-diorite, 42. 
Hornblende-gneiss, 35. 
Hornblende-schist, 35, 47. 
Horoeka, 10. 

Humboldt Mountains : ReUc of ancient peneplain, 14. 
Hump, Tertiary fossils at, 50. 
Hundeshagen, L. S., 64. 
Hunter Island (on 1st Australian arc), 25. 
Hupiro, 10. 

Hutchinsonian beds in Waiau Valley, 50, 52. 
Hutton, F. W., 20, 22, 23. 34, 39. 
Hydrozoa, 28. 

H ymenolaimus malo/Corhynchos, 7. 
Hypersthene, 45, 47. 


Idocrase (vce Vesuvianite). 

Igneous intrusions in Maitai Formation, 40. 

lUinois, lead-plant of, 8. 

Imperator, 51. 

India — 

Mesozoic plants of, 30. 

Permian glaciation of, 39, 41. 
Indian Ocean, submerged continent in, 41. 
Inflammable gas near Birchwood 63 
Inoceramus, 40. 
Introduction, 1. 
Iredale, T., 4. 
Iron oxide in diorite, 45. 
Isolation of New Zealand early in Tertiary, 32. 


Jacob's Estuary, granite near, 46. 

Java, grey duck of, 7. 

Juncus pallidus, 9. 

Jurassic rocks, folding of, 23. 


Kaherekoau Mountains, drainage of, 3. 

Kahu, 7. 

Kaikoura Peninsula, argillaceous limestone at, 76 

Kaimanawa Range — 

Continuation of South Island divide, 24. 

Overlapped by Miocene strata, 18. 

ReUc of ancient peneplain, 18. 
Kaka at — 

Quintin huts, 6. 

Sutherland Falls, 6. 

Waiau Valley, 5. 
Kakapo, 7. 
Kamahi, 10. 
Kaolin, 43. 
Kaolinite, 70. 
Karewarewa, 7. 
Kawhaka, 10, 11. 
Kea as sheep-killer, 6. 
Kermadec Islands, 25. 
Kidney-fern, 11. 


Kingfisher, 5. 

Kisbee Bay, granite erratics at, 15. 

Kiwi, 7. 

Kohoperoa, 5. 

Koninck, de, 40. 

Koromiko, 10. 

Kotuku, 6. 

Kowhai, 10. 

Kurow Range : Relic of ancient peneplain, 16. 

Labradorite as constituent of diorite, 42, 43, 44. 
Labradorite-anorthite type of diorite, 42. 
Lacustrine clays, 68. 
Lake Ada — 

Black teal at, 7. 

Submerged forest at, 56. 
Lake Harris, Permian fossils to west of, 40. 
Lakes, 2-4. 

Ada, 5. 

Duncan, 4. 

Green, 4. 

Gunn, 4, 40. 

Hakapoua, 3, 4. 

HaU, 4. 

Harris, 40. 

Hauroko (see Hauroto). 

Hauroto, 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. 

Hilda, 4. 

Manapouri, 1, 2, 4, 5, 7. 

Monowai, 1, 2, 3, 4. 

Mouat, 3. 

Poteriteri, 3, 4. 

Te Anau, 1, 2, 4, 6, 7. 

Te Au, 4. 

Wakatipu, 4, 6, 40. 
Lammerlaw Range : Relic of ancient peneplain, 14. 
Lam-prococcyx lucidus, 5. 
Lancefieldian, 34, 38. 
Lancewood, 10. 

Le Chatelier : Rules for cement proportions, 76. 
Lead -plant, 8. 

Leo Island, Tertiary strata at, 53. 
Lepidodendron, 30. 
Lepidolite in schists, 37. 
Leptocarpus simplex, 9. 
Leptoxperrnuiii scopariuni, 10. 
LherzoUte, 40, 46. 
Libocedrus Bidwillii, 10, 11. 
Life : distribution in early Palaeozoic, 28. 
Ligar Creek — 

Fault at, 20. 

Marine clays at, 52, 71. 

Marine clays, analysis of, 71. 
Lignite, 32, 49, 54, 55, 57, 64. 
Lillbum River, 3, 4. 
Lillbuni Valley — 

Awamoan beds in, 50. 

Celery-pine in, 10. 

Tertiary strata in, 53. 
Lima colorata, 51. 
Limestones — 

Analyses of, 67, 68. 

Argillaceous, 76. 

Clifden area, 67. 

Digger's Hill, 67. 

Feldn-ick, 67. 

Helmet Hill, 67. 

Maitai System, 29, 39, 40. 

Manapouri System, 13, 26, 28, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37. 

Origin of, 36. 

Pulverized, 67. 

Sharpridge, 67, 68. 

Waiau Caves, 67. 
Limopais, 51. 
Livingstone Range — 

Argillites in, 39. 

Drainage of, 3, 4. 

Maitai rocks of, 40. 

Relic of ancient Tahoran peneplain, 14. 

Rock-rents on summit, 21. 

Lomaria — 

At Blue Cliff, 11. 

At Mussel Beach, 11. 
Long Island, schists at, 36. 
Longwood Range — 

ArgUUtes in, 39. 

Augite-diorite at south end of, 45. 

Basalt dykes at, 42. 

Biotite-graiiite at, 46. 

Clinton River intrusives, 42. 

Coal-measures at base of, 50. 

Diorite intrusions, 40, 43. 

Faults at base of, 20. 

Gabbro at Round Hill, 40. 

Granite at south end of, 40. 

Relic of Tahoran peneplain, 14. 
Loranthus Golensoi, 11. 
Loranthus Fieldii, 11. 
Loranthus flavidus, 11. 
Loudon Hill, coal outcrop at, 64. 
Lower Utatiir, 27. 
Lycoj)odiums, 11. 
Lyell Range : Relic of Tahoran peneplain, 17. 


McGregor, W. J. A., 12. 

Macindoe, G. 1)., 63. 

McKay, A., 6, 20, 22, 35, 36, 39, 40, 48. 

McKinnon's Pass — 

Amphibolite at, 47. 

Diorite-gneiss at, 47. 

Gneissic rock at, 47. 

Hornblende rock at, 47. 

Mica-gneiss at, 47. 

Paradise duck at, 7. 

Wehrlite at, 47. 
Maclaurin, J. S., 12, 65, 71, 72, 74, 75. 
McLean, J. A., 12. 
Maclra, 51. 

Magmatic differentiation, 42. 
Magnetite, 36, 37, 43, 45. 
Maitai hmestone at — 

Bryneira Range, 29, 39. 

Dun Mountain, 40. 

Livingstone Range, 39. 

Wairoa Gorge, Nelson, 40. 
Maitai System, 26, 27, 29, 39-41. 

Age, 39, 40. 

Character, 39. 

Distribution, 39. 

Historical, 39. 

Igneous intrusions, 40. 

Relationship to Gondwanaland, 41. 

Structure, 39. 

Thickness, 39. 
Makomako (Aristotelia racenwsa), 10. 
Makomako, or bell-bird, 5. 
Malayan fauna rejjresented in N.Z., 32. 
Manapouri basin a trough-fault, 20. 
Manapouri country— 

Bog-pine at, 10. 

Diorites to west of, 34. 

Moraines at, 15. 

Oioi at, 9. 

Pegmatite in, 42. 

Tertiary strata in, 63. 
Manapouri System, 33-38 — 

Age, 34. 

Distribution, 34. 

Historical and general, 33-34. 

Intruded by diorites, 42. 

Metamorphic rocks of, 13. 

Origin of metamorphism, 35. 

Structure, 34. 

Thickness, 34. 
Manatu, or ribbonwood, 10, 11. 
Maniototo Series, 35, 48. 

Character and distribution of, 36. 

Foliation of, 37. 

Origin of schists, 37. 


Maniototo Series -continued. 
Petrology of, 3G, 37. 
Schists of, 40. 
Structure of, 36. 
Thickness of, 30. 
Mantellornis hochstetteri, 6. 
Manuka, 10. 
Maorigerygone igata, 5. 
Maple, white, 10. 
Mararoa basin — 
Clay in, 55, 72. 
Clay, analysis of, 72. 
Fluvio-glacial drift in, 55, 
Former extent, 55. 
Mararoa Flat, bog-pine at, 10. 
Mararoa River, drainage of, 4. 
Marine erosion of old peneplain, 18. 
Marlborough invaded by sea, 27. 
Mariy clays, 68, 70. 

Analyses of, 71, 72, 73. 
Marshall, P., 15, 17, 40, 46, 47. 
Marshes, Miocene coastal, 18. 
Marshes, salt, 9. 
Martinia subradiata, 40. 
Martiniopsis (see Martinia). 
Matai, 10. 

Matthews, G. M , 4. 
Matukituki Valley — 

Geological reconnaissance, 6. 
Quartzite at, 36. 
Meadow zone, 9. 

Melaphyre intruding argillites, 40. 
Merrivale, limestone at, 68. 
Mesophytic vegetation, 30. 
Mesozoic forests, 30. 
Mesozoic relationships of N.Z., 30. 
Metamorphism of gneisses and schists, 35. 
Metrosideros lucida, 10. 
Mica-norite, 42. 
Mica-schists at — 

Dusky Sound, 34, 36. 
Nelson, 33, 36. 
Otago, 18. 

Preservation Inlet, 37. 
Southland, 33, 37. 
Micliigan, lead-plant of, 8. 
Microcline, 36, 46. 
Mikonui country — 

Direction of folding, 22. 
Periods of folding, 22. 
Milford Sound — 
Birds at, 6. 
Black shag at, 7. 
Clinton River intrusives at, 42. 
D unite at, 42, 46. 
Gneisses at, 47. 
GranuUte at, 46. 
Grey teal at, 7. 
Hanging-valleys at, 7. 

Manapouri gneisses and schists south of, 34. 
Serpentine, 42. 
Mimwlus radicans, 10. 
Deltaic sediments, 15. 
Subsidence, 15. 
Trangression of sea, 15. 
Uplift, 19. 
Miro, 10. 

Mistletoes, woody — - 
Orange, 11. 
Scarlet, 11. 
YeUowish-red, 11. 
Mixed-bush zone, 10. 
Mohoua ochrocephala, 5. 
Moir, G. M., 40. 

Mokau, Trio-Jurassic rocks at, 24. 
Molybdenite in schists, 35, 37. 
Monkey Island, clays at, 54. 
Monotis, 30. 
Monowai — ■ 

Diorites west of, 34. 
Fault at, 20 

Monowai- -continual. 

Hydro-electric scheme, 77. 

River, 2, 4. 

Sparrow-hawk at, 7. 

Tea-tree at, 10. 
Montane basins, 16, 23. 
Morepork, or ruru, 5. 
Moretown — 

Available coal at, 58. 

Coal area, 57. 

Coal-seams, 58. 
Morgan, P. G., 16, 17, 22, 23, 35, 36, 37, 68. 
Morning Star Mine, 35. 
Morphological classification, 8. 
Morris, A., 12. 

Mossbank No. 1 Coal-mine, 59. 
Mossbank No. 2 Coal-mine, 61. 
Mosses, 11. 

Motu country : ReUc of Tahoran peneplain, 18. 
Mount — 

Alta, quartzite at, 36. 

Arrowsmith, a dissected peneplain, 16. 

Arthur, a dissected peneplain, 17. 

Aspiring, mica-schists at, 36. 

Balloon, diorites at, 47. 

Bradshaw, diorite-gneiss at, 34. 

Cook : Kea as sheep-killer, 6. 

Earnslaw, brown creeper at, 5. 

Edwards : Horneblende with pyroxene, 43. 

Egmont, age of, 23. 

Hamilton, Maitai rocks at, 39. 

Hart, diorites at, 47. 

Linton Mine — 

Area of burnt coal, 60. 
Big seam at, 59, 60, 61. 
Coal-measures, 50. 
Faulting of seams, 60. 
Rosin seam, 60. 

Pender, gneisses and schists at, 36. 

Torlesse, annelid beds at, 40. 
Mountain-building periods, 22-24. 
Mountain-folding, 25. 
Mountain-parrot, or kakapo, 7. 
Mountains, block, 14, 15, 16, 17, 28. 
Mourlonia, 40. 

Murchison Range : ReUc of Tahoran peneplain, 17. 
Murcott Burn, Maitai rock at, 40. 
MurreU, G., 55. 
MurreU, H., 12. 
Muscovite as constituent of — 

Diorite-gneiss, 47. 

Mica-gneiss, 47 
Musk, 10. 
Mussel Beach — 

Dotterel at, 7. 

Mixed bush at, 11. 

Tertiary fossils at, 50, 51. 
Myiomoira macrocephula, 5. 
Myosotis pvlvinaris, 11. 
Mytilus, 51. 


Nancy Sound, drainage into, 4. 

Nelson graptolites, 28. 

Neocomian in west Auckland, 31. 

Nesierax australis, 7. 

Nestor meridionalis. 5. 

Nestor notabilis, 6. 

Nettion castaneum, 7. 

New Hebrides, 25 

New Ireland, 25. 

New Zealand — 

Faunal relationships of, 32. 

Flax, 10. 

Former land connections of, 32, 
Ngauruhoe, age of, 23. 
Nightcaps area — 

Analysis of clays from, 72. 

Coal-measures at, 1, 52. 

Coal-measures abut against base rock, 57 

Faults in, 20. 


Norite at — 

Darran Range, 42. 

Hidden Falls Saddle, 43. 
North Auckland, sunken range of, 22, 24. 
Nothofagus fusca, 10. 
Nothofagus Menziesii, 10, 11. 
Nothofagus Solanderi, 10, 11. 


Oaraaruian system, 49-54. 

Blackmount section, 52-53. 

Clifden section, 51-52. 

Character of beds, 50-51. 

Climate, 31. 

Conditions of deposition, 49-50. 

Distribution, 50. 

Economic minerals, 54. 

Faults and fault-troughs, 32. 

Intermontane basins, 32. 

Marginal origin of, 31. 

Mus.sel Beach section, 51. 

Structure, 53. 

Te Anau section, 53. 

Uplifting in Te Anau country, 53. 
Oceanic depressions, 25. 
Ohai coalfield, 59-64. 

Analysis of coal, 64. 

Available coal, 64. 

Big seam at, 57. 

Borehole records, 61-63. 

Burnt coal, 60. 

Clapp's coal-mine, 59. 

Faulting, 20, 59. 

Mossbank big seam, 59. 

Mount Linton Mine, 59, 60. 

Rosin seam, 60. 

Wairald Mine, 59, 60. 
Ohai-Nightcaps coal-area, faults intersecting, 20. 
Ohau, geological reconnaissance of, 6. 
Oil-discovery, prospects of, at — - 

Clifden, 66. 

Oreti Plain, 66. 

Tuatapere, 66. 
Oioi at — 

Manapouri, 9. 

Rotorua, 9. 

Tokaanu, 9. 
Old Man Range : Relic of Tahoran peneplain. 
Olearia angustifolia, 10. 
Olearia Colensoi, 10. 
Olearia m'schata, 1 1 
Oligoclase as constituent of diorite, 43. 
Oligoclase-andesine phase of diorite, 42. 
Olivine Range, dunite at, 46. 
Ongley, M., 59, 60. 

Opotiki country : Relic of ancient peneplain, 18. 
Orawia River — 

Clays at, 74. 

Drainage into, 4. 

Gold-bearing veins, 54 

Tertiary strata at, 53. 
Ordovician rocks at — 

Dusky Sound, 37, 38 

Preservation Inlet, 37, 38. 
Orepuki area — • 

Clays and silts at, 54. • 

Dotterel at, 7. 
Orientation of sounds due to fractures, 15. 
Orogi-nic thrust from east, 23. 
Orthoclase, 37, 46. 
Ostrea, 51. 

Osirea wuellerstorfi, 52. 

Otago lake-basins : Origin due to faulting, 14. 
Otago peneplain, 14, 17. 
Otago University, bell-bird at, 5. 
Otago-Southland peneplain — 

Deposition of covering strata, 16. 

Submergence of, 15. 
Ototaran stage, 50, 52. 
Ourisin Colensoi, 11. 
Ourisia sessiliflora, 11. 
Ouvarovite, 37. 

Pachymagas parki, 50, 52 

Pacific tectonics, 25. 

Palaeozoic plants not known in New Zealand, 41. 

Panax Colensoi, 11. 

Panopcea, 51. 

Paparoa Range : Relic of Tahoran peneplain, 17. 

Paradise duck, 7. 

Parapara country, gneisses at, 33. 

Park, James, 17, 18, 22, 23, 24, 33, 34, 35, 37, 39, 

40, 41, 46, 47. 
Parrakeets, yellow-fronted, 6. 
Patete, 10. 
Patupo River, 4. 
J'ecten huttoni, 51. 
Pegmatite veins in granite, 42. 
Peneplained mica-schist, 18. 
Peneplaining, date of, 15, 16, 17. 
Pepper-tree, 10. 

Permian fossils west of Lake Harris, 40. 
Permian N. S. folding, 22, 23. 
Permo-Carboniferous — 

Fossils at Livingstone Range, 40. 
Marine fauna of, 41. 
Of Nelson, 40. 
Phalacrocorax carbo, 7. 
Phormium tenax, 10. 
Phyllite at Preservation Inlet, 34, 37. 
Phyllodadus alpinus, 11. 
Phyllocladus trichomanoides, 10. 
Pickersgill Harbour, diorite-gneiss at, 47. 
Pied stilt, 7. 
Pihoihoi, 5. 
Pikikiruna Range — 

Crystalline rocks in Triassic conglomerate. 43. 
Relic of Tahoran peneplain, 17. 
Series of schists and gneisses, 26, 33. 
Pinna, 52. 

Plagianthus belulintis, 10, 11. 
Plagioclase, 45, 47. 
Plant-assemblages, 8 9. 
Factors governing, 8. 
Influence of light and shade on, 8. 
Influence of pathogenic bacteria on, 8. 
Plant life- 
Adaptability of, 8, 9, 
Causes of variation, 8, 9. 
Differentiation of, 8. 
Effects of moisture, 9. 
Horizontal zcmes, 8. 
Societies, 8, 9. 
Plant-morphology, 8. 
Plant-paragencsis, 8. 
Plant-physiology, 8, 9. 
Plant-stations, 8. 
Plants — 

Classification of, 8. 
Extinction of, 8. 
New species of, 8. 
Platinum in sands, 54. 

Gabbro as original source of, 54. 
Platyschisma, 40. 
Pleistocene, 54—56. 
Erosion. 27. 

Fluvio-glacial drifts, 55. 
High-level gravels, 55. 
Glacial drifts, 55, 56. 
Gold in drifts, 54. 
Moraines, 55, 56. 
Orepuki clays and silts, 54, 55. 
Platinum in clays and silts, 54, 55. 
Pleistocene ice-sheet at west coast, 15. 
Pleuroioma, 40. 
Pliocene uplift, 23, 49, 50. 
Differential, 27. 
■ Led to no land connection.s, 32. 
Pluviorhynchiis ohacurus, 7. 
Poa Colensoi, 11. 
Port foliosa, 1 1 . 
Podiceps cristalus, 7. 
Podocarpus ferrugineus, 10. 
Podocarj/us nivalis, 11. 
Podocarpus spicatus, 10. 


Podocarpvfi totara, 10. 

Poly podium, 1 1 . 

Polyzoan limestone, 1, 49 

Pomona Island, Lake Manapouri, 2. 

Porcelain clays, 68. 

Porphyriij melanonolus, 6. 

Port Craig — 

Faulting at, 20. 
Fossils at, 51. 
Tertiary rocks at, 1, 51. 
Portland cement — 

Economics of manufacture, 76, 77. 
Limiting composition of, 75. 
Pulverized coal in making of, 65. 
Post -Jurassic peneplain, extent of, 16. 
Potential coal areas, 64. 
Pottery clay, analysis of, 69. 
Pouraldno Creek, .:ranite at, 46. 
Poverty Bay, Albian sediments at, 27. 
PoweU, J. W., 20. 
Pre-Albian folding, 23. 
Pre-Ordovician land, 29. 
Preservation Inlet — 

Argillites at, 35, 37. 
Camptonite dykes at, 42. 
Clinton River Series at, 42. 
Diorites at, 47. 
Diorite-gneiss at, 47. 
Erratics at, 15. 
Granite at, 46, 47. 
Gneisses at, 47. 
Graptolites at, 26, 28. 
llica-schist at, 47. 
Ordovician slates at, 38. 
Preservation Inlet Series — 
Age, 38. 

General distribution, 37. 
Strike of rocks, 37, 38. 
Princess Bum, drainage into, 3. 
Princess Alountains, 3. 
Princhester Creek — 
Clays at, 71. 
Coal at, 64. 

Mararoa claj's and silts south of, 55 
Producius, 40. 

Progressive metamorphiam, 33. 
Prosthemadera nofceseelandim, 5. 
Pseudopanax crassijolium, 10. 
Pukeko, 6. 

Pulverized coal, uses of, 66. 
Pupango, 7. 
Putangitangi, 7. 
Pj-rite in schist, 37. 

Pjroxene as constituent of diorite, 42, 43. 
PjTOxene-diorite., 43. 
Pyroxenite at Hidden Fails Saddle, 40. 
Pyrrhotite at Dusky Sound, 37. 


Quartz as rock-constituent, 34, 36, 37, 43, 44, 46, 47. 
Quartz in tensional rents, 42. 
(^uartz-biotite-diorite, 44. 

Analysis of, 44. 
Quartz-diorite-gneiss, 36. 
Quartz-schists, 36. 
Quartzites, 34, 36. 
Quested's coal area, 58, 59. 

Analysis of clay, 72. 

Analysis of coal, 59. 

Fault, 20. 

Rosin seam, 59. 
Quintin huts — 

Kaka at, 6. 

Kim at, 7. 

Paradise duck at. 7. 


Rainfall, 2. 

Rangitatan folding, 23, 24, 39. 

Ranunculus Buchanani, 11. 

Ranunculus Godkyanus, 10. 
Ranunculus Lyallii, 11. 
Ranunculus knuicaulif, 11. 
Ramilia Heclori, 11. 
Eaovlia ^ubulata, 11. 
Rata, southern, 10, 11. 
Recent accumulations — 

Alluvial fiats, 56. 

Clays, 56. 

Sandhills, 56. 

Storm-beaches, 56. 
Recumbent folding of Central Otago schists, 18. 
Red bill, 7. 

Red-birch, sn called, 10. 
Redcliff Ch-eek, coal outcrop at, 64. 
Red Hill Range— 

Dunite at, 46. 

Serpentine at, 46. 
Red -pine, 10. 

Relationship of N.Z. to Gondwanaland, 41. 
Residual clays, analysis of, 70. 
Resin in coal-seams, 57 et seq. 
Resolution Island — 

Argillites at, 37. 

Diorite at, 35. 

Diorite-gneiss at, 34. 

Gneisses at, 48. 

Graptolite slates at, 34. 
Bhipogonum scandens, 10. 
RhyncJioTiella (? pw/ixix) cf. plfurodon, 40. 
Ribbonwood, 10, 11. 

Rift-valleys, 23. See also Waiau Valley. 
Rimu, or red-pine, 10. 
Riroriro, 5. 
Ritchie's fault, 20. 
River-bed plant-assemblage, 10. 
Rivers. 4. 
Riwaka Series, 33. 
Robin, or South Island thrush, 4. 

Rock and Pillar Range : Relic of Tahoran peneplain, 14. 
Rock-rents on Livingstone Range. 21. 
Rodger, A. W., 12. 
Rosin seam, 57, 58, 59, 60, 64. 

Analvsis of coal, 64. 
Round Hill— 

Augite-diorite at, 45. 

Clays and silts at, .54. 

Lienitic silts at, 54. 
Rowallan Burn, clays and silts at, 54. 
Ruahine Range — 

Miocene .strata on higher slopes, 18, 24. 

On 3rd Australian arc, 25. 
Relic of Tahoran peneplain, 18. 
Ruahine uplift, 23. 

Differential, 31. 
Ruapehu, age of, 23. 
Rufjus australis, 10. 
Rush, 8. 

Russia : Palaeozoic glacial deposits, 29. 
RutUe, 35, 36, 37, 47. 

Salt-meadow and salt-swamp zone, 9. 
Sandhill Pouit, 3. 
Sandstones, altered, 34. 
Sandy Point Hut, bi^ds at, 5. 
Santa Cruz Island (on Ist Australian arc), 25. 
Sarsen stone, 16. 
Sauropaiis sanctus forsteri, 5. 
Saxonite, 46. 
Scalaria lyrata, 31. 
ScJiefflera digitata, 10. 
Scliists associated with wollastonite, 54. 
Schists of Central Otago in recumbent folds, 18. 
Scope of work, 1, 2. 
Scotland, Mesozoic plants of, 30. 
Seaward Kaikoura Range continuous to north, 27. 
Sedge, 9. 

Senecio bellidioides, 11. 
Senecio Haa-stii, 11. 
Senei:io rotundifolia, 10. 


Sericite-sohist, 36, 37. 
Serpentine at — 

Dun Mountain, 43. 

Hidden Falls Saddle, 40, 43. 

Wade, 43. 

Westland, 43. 
Serpentine not knowTi in Triassic conglomerates, 43. 
Se.rpulites Warthi, 40. 
Sertularians, 28. 

Sharpridge, limestone at, 49. 67, 68. 
Shotover — 

Mica-schist at, 36. 

Strike of schists, 36. 
Siberia, Mesozoic jilants of, 30. 
Siqilluria 30. 

Sills of basic or ultra-basic rock, 37, 43. 
Silver-eye, 5. 

Slaty River araptolites, 26. 
Smith, J., 12. 
Smith, T., fiO. 
Smith, W., 7. 

Sod'um chloride, occurrences of, 9. 
Solomon Islands, 25. 
Sophora tetraplern, 10. 
Sounds area — 

Dunite at, 47. 

Serpentine at, 47. 

Shadow-land of Maori, 23. 
South Africa, Palaeozoic glacial deposits of, 29, 41. 
South America, New Zealand fauna related to, 32, 
South Pacific, Gondwana continent in, 27. 
Southland electrification scheme, 1. 
Sparrow-hawk, 7. 
Species, variability of. 7. 
Specular iron in sands, 54. 
Speight, R., 16, 47. 
Spencer, Herbert, 7, 8. 
SphagnioH, 11. 
Sphene, or titanite, in — 

Diorite, 43, 44, 47. 

Mica-gneiss, 47. 
Spiloglaiijr. novcnstelandiw, 5. 
Spinel in sands, 54. 
Spirifer cf. hisuk.alu^, 40. 
Spirifer qlnher, 40. 
Spiriferina, 40. 
St. Mary's Bay, 3. 
Sterna striata, 7. 
Story of the rocks, 26. 
Striated boulders in Palaeozoic rocks, 29. 
Striated rock-surfaces at Lake Manapouri, 65. 
Strigopa habroptilus, 7. 
Strontium oxide in diorite, 44. 
Stropluilosia (ProdurtiiK), 40. 
Stuart Mountains, drainage of, 4. 
Subalpine zone, 11. 
Submerged forest at — 

Lake Ada, 56- 

Lake Hauroto, 56. 
Succession of Ufe, 28-32. 
Suess, E., 22, 24, 2.5. 
Sumatra, platinum in. 54. 
Sunnyside — 

Limestone barrier at, 53. 

Marly clays at, 53, 71. 
Supan, A., 25. 
Supplejack, 10. 
Southland Falls— 

Kaka at, 6. 

Kiwi at, 7. 
Swamp-hen, 6. 
Syntaxial folding, 23. 


Tahora, the ancient New Zealand peneplain — 

Date of formation, 18. 

Encroachment by sea, 27. 

Extent of, 17, 18. 

Rocks concerned in, 19. 

Structure, 18. 
Taieri Mouth : Striated boulders in Palwozoic breccia, 

Taieri Plain, white heron at. 7. 

Takahe. 6. 

Takitimu Mountains, 1, 2, 4. 

ArgilJites at 39. 

Augite-porphyrite at, 42. 

Basalt dykes at, 42. 

Bounded by faults, 20. 

Coal rocks .south of, 50. 

Red bands in, 13. 

Structure of, 13, 14. 
Talc-schists, 37. 
Tanekaha, 10. 

Tapanui Range : Relic of Tahoran pcno])hiin, 14. 
Tararua Range : Extension of Soutli Lsland divide 24. 
Tasman Valley, kcas at, 6. 
Tauhou (white-eye), 5. 
Taylor's Creek, coal at, 64. 
Te Anau area— 

Diorites west of, 34. 

Morainic matter at, 15. 

Tertiary marine rocks highly tilted at, 53. 
Te Anau lake-basin a fault-trouL'h, 20. 
Te Anau Series (Hector), 39. 
Te Waewae Bay, 3. 

Clays and silts at, 54. 

Coal rocks at, .50. 
Tea-tree, 10. 
Templeton River, 3. 
Templeton, W. E., 12. 
Teredo heaphyi, 51. 
Tertiarv coal-measures — 

At Ohai Valley, 40. 

Tilted to east and west of Lake Te Anau, 13. 
Tests of clays, 73. 

At high temperatures, 74. 
Tetraijrtiptu.'' deripienx, 38. 
Thinogenic rocks, 24. 
Thompson Sound— 

Diorites at, 47. 

Gneisses at, 47. 

Granite at, 47. 

Schists at, 47. from east, 23. 
Tmc6o like shell in Maitai limestone, 40. 
Turpentine-pine, 10. 
Tussock-grasses, 9, 11. 
Tutu, 10. 
Ti, 10. 
Titanite, or sphene, in — 

Diorite, 4;}, 44, 47. 

Schists, 37. 
Titiraurangi — 

Maori name of Fiordland country, 14. 

Relic of Tahoran peneplain, 14. 
Titiroa Range : Relic of Tahoran peneplain, 14. 
Tcjdea hymenophylloides, 11. 
Todea superba, 11. 
Toetoe, 10. 

Tomtit of South Island, 5. 
Tonga Island (on 3rd Australian arc), 25. 
Topographical features, 13. 
Torlessia McKayi, 40. 
Totara, 10. 

Transported clays, 70. 
Transverse faults, 20-21. 
Trechmann, C. T., 40. 
Tregear, E., 3 
TreUssick Basin — 

A down-faulted block, 16. 

Faulting in, 20. 

Tertiary strata resting on Cretaceous, 1 9. 
Tremadoc stage, 34. 
TremoUte in schist, 37. 
Tremolite-schist, 37. 
Trichomanes reniforme, 11. 
Trio-Jurassic — 

Marly shales of, 39. 

Rocks peneplained, 16, 22, 23. 
Troehus, 51. 

Trough faults, 20, 23, 27, 55. 
Tiiatapere — 

Birds at, 5. 

Clay at, 71. 

Oil-prospects at, 66. 


Tuhuan granites, 23, 34. 
Tui, 5. 
Twinlaw Peak — 

Fault along base, 20. 

Limestone at base, 68, 76. 

Limestone, analysis ot, 68. 


Ulrich. G. H. F., 46. 
Ultra-basic intrusions, 46. 

Accompanying Rangitatan folding, 23. 
Umbrella fern, 11 
Uplift in- 

Australia; 30. 

New Zealand, 30. 

Tasmania, 30. 
Upukerora River, drainage area of, 4. 
Upukerora Valley, coal at, 64, 65. 
Ural Mountains : Platinum in gabbro, 54. 
Uralite in pyroxene-diorite, 45. 
Urodynamis taitensifi, 5. 
U-shaped valleys, 55. 
Utatiir, Lower, 27. 

Variability of species, 7. 

Variation due to geological events and climatic 

changes, 8. 
Venericardia difficilia, 51. 
Venus, 51, 

Veronica Hectori, 11. 
Veronica macrantha, 11. 
Veronica salicifolia, 10. 
Vesuvianite, 37. 
Victoria, l.ancefieldian of. 38. 
Victoria Range: Relic of Tahoran peneplain, 17. 
Viola calaininaria, 8. 
Viola Ciinninghamii_ 11. 
Vitrifying clays, analysis of, 69. 


VS^ade, serpentine at, 43. 
Waiarekan in Waiau Valley, 51. 
Waiau Mouth — 

SandhiUs at, 56. 

Storm-beaches at, 56. 
Waiau River — 

Extension of system in glacial times, 3. 

Lakes drained by, 1. 

Ponded by barriers, 54, 55. 
Waiau Valley — 

Bird-life in, 5. 

Caves at Clifden, 67. 

Clays in, 71. 

Climate and rainfall, 2. 

Depression, 14, 15. 

Fault or rift, 13, 20, 28, 55. 

Grey teal in, 7. 

Morainic material in, 15. 

Tertiary strata in, 11, 13, 50-54. 

Trough-fault, 20. 

Wood-pigeon at Blackmount, 6.'^ 
Waihoaka area — 

Gabbro at, 54. 
Waikawa fossil forest. 30. 
Waikoau River, 3. 
Waimeamea area, gabbro at, 54. 
Waininihi peneplain. 17. 
Waipa area, Trio Jurassic rocks at, 24. 
Waipara area — 

Argillaceous limestone at, 76. 

Faulting in, 20. 

Oamaruian strata follow Cretaceous, 10. 
Wairaki River — 

Clays at mouth of, 71.. 

Ground-lark at, 5. 

■6 9( 



Wairaki Valley, Tertiary strata in. 53. 
Wairaurahiri River, 3. 
Wairio coalfield — 

Analysis of coal, 58. 

Big seam at, 57. 

Clays at, 72. 

Coal-measures of, 50, 57. 

Faults in, 58. 

Structure of coal-measures, 57-58. 

Succession of strata, 57. 
Wairoa (Nelson) area, Alaitai rocks in, 40. 
Waitemata Harbour, granitic conglomerate at, 24. 
Waitutu River, 3. 
Wakatipu country — 

Keas at, 6. 

Strike of schists, 36. 
Wanaka country — 

Geological reconnaissance of, 76. 

Schists at, 36. 

System (Hutton), 33. 
Wanganui (Upper), Trio- Jurassic rocks at, 24. 
Webb, E. J. H., 17, 23. 
Wehrlite, 47. 

WeinTnannia racemova, 10. 
Weka, 6. 
Weka Pass area: Cretaceous followed by Tertiary 

strata, 19. 
Welcome Point, coal rocks at, 50. 
Wellington East Coast area — 

Albian strata at, 27. 

Argillaceous limestone at, 76. 

Ranges, relic of ancient Tahoran peneplain, 17. 

Volcanic region of, 27. 
Westland — 

Easterly dip of crystalline schists, 26. 

Pounamu Series of, 43. 
Westport highlands : Relic of fossil peneplain, 1 7. 
Whakamarama Range : ReUc of Tahoran peneplain, 17. 
Whare Creek, coal at, 64. 
Whio, 7. 
White heron, 6. 
White Range — 

Gravels capping, 58. 

High-level gravels, 57. 

Section across, 58. 
White-eye, 5. 
White-fronted tern, 7. 
Wild-irishman, 9. 
WilUams, Archdeacon W., 3. 
Winton, limestone at, 49, 76, 77. 
Wisconsin, lead-plant of, 8. 
Wood, carbonized, 52, 64, 55. 
Woodhen, or weka, 6. 
Wood-pigeon at Blackmount, 6. 
Woods, H., 27. 

Wollastonite as source of platinum, 54. 
Worsley Arm, Tertiary strata at, 50. 

Xerophytes, 11. 
Yellow head, 5. 



Zaphrentis, 40. 
Zircon, 37, .54. 
Zoisite, 37. 
Zone — 

Alpine, of plants, 11-12. 

Forest, 11. 

Meadow, 9-10. 

Mixed bush, 10-11. 

Salt meadows and salt swamp, 9. 

Subalpine serub, 11 
Zones, horizontal, of plant-life, 8. 
Zoalerops lateralis tasmanica, 5. 

By Authority : Marcus F. Marks, Government Printer, Wellington. — 1921. 


University of